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Berry, P.E., R. Riina, J.A. Peirson, Y. Yang, V.W. Steinmann, D.V. Geltman, J.J. Morawetz, and N.I. Cacho. 2016. Euphorbia. In Flora of North America Editorial Committee. 2016. Flora of North America north of Mexico. Volume 12, Magnoliophyta: Vitaceae to Garryaceae. Oxford Univ. Press, New York, NY. 603 pp.

Bradley, K.A., and J. Sadle. 2021. A new species of Euphorbia subgenus Chamaesyce from southern Florida, and a new name. In Weakley, A.S., D.B. Poindexter, H.C. Medford, A.R. Franck, K.A. Bradley, J. Sadle, and J.M. Kelley. 2021. Studies in the vascular flora of the southeastern United States. VII. J. Bot. Res. Inst. Texas 15: 23-56.

Bridges, E.L., and S.L. Orzell. 2002. Euphorbia (Euphorbiaceae) section Tithymalus subsection Inundatae in the southeastern United States. Lundellia 5: 59-78.

Burch, D. 1966. The genus Poinsettia in Florida. Ann. Missouri Bot. Garden 53: 375-376.

Cacho, N.I., Monteverde-Suárez, M.J., and P.J. McIntyre. 2019. Convergent evolution in oral morphology in a plant ring species, the Caribbean Euphorbia tithymaloides. Amer. J. Bot. 106: 1032-1045.

Dorsey, B.L., T. Haevermans, X. Aubriot, J.J. Morawetz, R. Riina, V.W. Steinmann, and P.E. Berry. 2013. Phylogenetics, morphological evolution, and classification of Euphorbia subgenus Euphorbia. Taxon 62: 291-315.

Dressler, R.L. 1957. The genus Pedilanthus (Euphorbiaceae). Contr. Gray Herb. 182: 1-188.

Govaerts, R., D.G. Frodin, and A. Radcliffe-Smith. 2000. World checklist and bibliography of Euphorbiaceae (with Pandaceae). Volumes 1-4. Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, England.

Horn, J.W., B.W. van Ee, J.J. Morawetz, R. Riina, V.W. Steinmann, P.E. Berry, and K.J. Wurdack. 2012. Phylogenetics and the evolution of major structural characters in the giant genus Euphorbia L. (Euphorbiaceae). Molec. Phylogen. Evol. 63: 305-326.

Huft, M.J. 1979. A monograph of Euphorbia section Tithymalopsis. Ph.D. dissertation, Univ. of Michigan.

Mayfield, M.H., 2013. Four new annual species of Euphorbia section Tithymalus (Euphorbiaceae) from North America. J. Bot. Res. Inst. Texas 7(2): 633-647.

Park, K. 1998. Monograph of Euphorbia sect. Tithymalopsis (Euphorbiaceae). Edinb. J. Bot. 55: 161-208.

Riina, R., J.A. Peirson, D.V. Geltman, J. Molero, B. Frajman, A. Pahlevani, L. Barres, J.J. Morawetz, Y. Salmaki, S. Zarre, A. Kryukov, P.V. Bruyns, and P.E. Berry. 2013. A worldwide molecular phylogeny and classification of the leafy spurges, Euphorbia subgenus Esula (Euphorbiaceae). Taxon 62: 316-342.

Smith, S., and A. Krings. 2018. Euphorbia heterophylla (Euphorbiaceae) in South Carolina, North Carolina, and Virginia, U.S.A. J. Bot. Res. Inst. Texas 12: 369-372.

Ward, D.B. 2001. New combinations in the Florida flora. Novon 11: 360-365.

Ward, S.G. 2023. Surging spurges: confirming the presence of naturalized populations of Euphorbia oblongata in the eastern United States, with comparisons to similar members of subgenus Esula. In Weakley, A.S., J.C. Kees, B.A. Sorrie, S.G. Ward, D.B. Poindexter, M. Brock, L.D. Estes, E.L. Bridges, S.L. Orzell, G.A. Levin, R.K.S. McClelland, R.J. Schmidt, and S.A. Namestnik. 2023. Studies in the vascular flora of the southeastern United States. IX. J. Bot. Res. Inst. Texas 17(1): 191-257.

Webster, G.L. 2014. Euphorbiaceae. In Kubitzki, K., ed. 2014. The families and genera of vascular plants, XI. Flowering plants – Eudicots – Malpighiales. Springer, Berlin. 331 pp.

Yang, Y., R. Riina, J.J. Morawetz, T. Haevermans, X. Aubriot, and P.E. Berry. 2012. Molecular phylogenetics and classification of Euphorbia subgenus Chamaesyce (Euphorbiaceae). Taxon 61: 764-789.

Zimmermann, N.F.A., C.M. Ritz, and F.H. Hellwig. 2010. Further support for the phylogenetic relationships within Euphorbia L. (Euphorbiaceae) from nrITS and trnL-trnF IGS sequence data. Plant Syst. Evol. 286: 39-58.

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