Carpinus Linnaeus. Subfamily: Coryloideae.
A genus of about 26 species, trees, in temperate regions of the Northern Hemisphere, extending southward to se. Asia and Central America. The smooth gray bark gives Carpinus the names ‘Water-beech’ and ‘Blue-beech’, the fluted, sinewy appearance of the trunk the name ‘Muscle-tree’, and the very hard, heavy wood the name ‘Ironwood’.
Ref: Furlow (1987a); Furlow (1987b); Furlow (1990); Furlow (1997) In Flora of North America Editorial Committee (1997); Govaerts & Frodin (1998); Hardin (1971a); Kubitzki, Rohwer, & Bittrich (1993). Show full citations.