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Betula nigra Linnaeus. River Birch, Red Birch. Phen: Mar-Apr; May-Jun. Hab: Riverbanks, streambanks, floodplains, sandbars, disturbed uplands. Dist: NH west to se. MN and e. KS, south to ne. FL, FL Panhandle, and e. TX.

ID notes: The bark of young trees and branches of older trees is a distinctive pinkish color, peeling off in paper-like sheets. Older trees have dark gray, fissured bark. The broadly wedge-shaped leaf base and strongly doubly-serrate leaves are also distinctive.

Origin/Endemic status: Native

Taxonomy Comments: A diploid species (2n=2x=28).

Synonymy: = Ar, C, F, Fl2, FNA3, G, GrPl, GW2, Il, K1, K3, K4, NcTx, NE, NY, Pa, RAB, S, Tat, Tn, Tx, Va, W, WH3, WV, Furlow (1990), Hardin (1971a)

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Wetland Indicator Status:

  • Atlantic and Gulf Coastal Plain: FACW
  • Eastern Mountains and Piedmont: FACW
  • Great Plains: FACW
  • Midwest: FACW
  • Northcentral & Northeast: FACW

Heliophily ?: 5

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image of plant© theo_witsell, some rights reserved (CC BY-NC), uploaded by theo_witsell source CC-BY-NC, permission granted to NCBG | Original Image ⭷
image of plant© Alan Cressler: Betula nigra, male and female flowers, Altamaha Park, Glynn County, Georgia 1 by Alan Cressler source | Original Image ⭷
image of plant© Gary P. Fleming | Original Image ⭷
image of plant© Scott Ward | Original Image ⭷
image of plant© theo_witsell, some rights reserved (CC BY-NC), uploaded by theo_witsell source CC-BY-NC, permission granted to NCBG | Original Image ⭷
image of plant© J.W. Hardin | Original Image ⭷
image of plant© Bruce A. Sorrie | Original Image ⭷
image of plant© Matt, some rights reserved (CC BY-NC), uploaded by Matt source CC-BY-NC, permission granted to NCBG | Original Image ⭷

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