*Vincetoxicum nigrum (Linnaeus) Moench. Phen: May-Aug. Hab: Disturbed areas. Dist: Native of Mediterranean Europe. Reported for many states in ne. United States, south to MD, KY, TN.
Origin/Endemic status: Mediterranean Europe and Africa
Synonymy: = C, Il, Mi, Pa; = Cynanchum louiseae Kartesz & Gandhi – K1, K3, K4, Mo2, NE, NY; = Cynanchum nigrum (L.) Pers. – F, G, GrPl