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Sideroxylon lycioides Linnaeus. Buckthorn Bumelia, Buckthorn Bully, Carolina Buckthorn. Phen: Jun-Aug; Sep-Nov. Hab: Maritime forests, maritime scrub, river bluffs, swamp margins, usually in circumneutral soil (over shell hash, coquina limestone, marl, or limestone), in the Piedmont and Mountains in rich, mesic forests over mafic or calcareous rocks. Dist: Se. VA south to Panhandle FL, west to se. TX, north in the interior to s. IN, s. IL, and se. MO, mostly on the Coastal Plain, but extending (in our area in NC and SC) to the upper Piedmont and north in the interior (primarily on limestone) to KY and TN.

ID notes: This species is extremely variable in leaf shape; though described in most works as up to 10-12 cm long and up to 4 cm wide, the leaves can be to 15 cm long and 8 cm wide. The leaf apex can be acuminate, acute, rounded, or notched.

Origin/Endemic status: Endemic

Synonymy: = Ar, Fl5, FNA8, K1, K3, K4, Tn, Va, WH3, Govaerts, Frodin, & Pennington (2001), Pennington (1991); = Bumelia lycioides (L.) Pers. – C, G, GW2, Il, RAB, S, Cronquist (1945a), Godfrey (1988); = n/a – Tat; > Bumelia cassinifolia Small – Clark (1942); > Bumelia lycioides (L.) Pers. – Tx; > Bumelia lycioides (L.) Pers. var. ellipsoidalis R.B.Clark – Clark (1942); > Bumelia lycioides (L.) Pers. var. lycioides – F, Clark (1942); > Bumelia lycioides (L.) Pers. var. virginiana Fernald – F, Clark (1942); > Bumelia smallii R.B.Clark – F, Tx, Clark (1942)

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Wetland Indicator Status:

  • Atlantic and Gulf Coastal Plain: FAC
  • Eastern Mountains and Piedmont: FACW
  • Midwest: FACW

Heliophily ?: 6

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image of plant© Gary P. Fleming | Original Image ⭷
image of plant© Gary P. Fleming | Original Image ⭷
image of plant© Radford, Ahles and Bell | Original Image ⭷

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