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Circaea ×sterilis Boufford. Hybrid Enchanter's-nightshade. Phen: Jun-Aug. Hab: Mesic, nutrient-rich forests. Dist: NL (Newfoundland) west to ON and MN, south to w. NC, OH, and WI; it appears to be rare in our area, but should be sought more carefully.

Origin/Endemic status: Native

Other Comments: C. ×sterilis is reported to occur frequently in the absence of one or both of its parents (Boufford 1983; Skvortsov 1979), and is therefore treated separately and keyed here. Recognition of C. canadensis (Linnaeus) Hill as distinct from C. lutetiana renders the hybrid binomial name C. ×intermedia inappropriate for North American plants, since it is the hybrid of C. alpina ssp. alpina and the European C. lutetiana.

Synonymy: = FNA10, K3, K4, Boufford (2005), Wagner, Hoch, & Raven (2007); = Circaea ×intermedia Ehrh. (pro sp.) – C, K1, Pa, RAB, W, Boufford (1983 [1982]), Munz (1965), misapplied; = Circaea alpina L. ssp. alpina – NY; = Circaea canadensis (L.) Hill – G, WV, misapplied; > Circaea canadensis (L.) Hill var. canadensis – F, misapplied; > Circaea canadensis (L.) Hill var. virginiana Fernald – F

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Wetland Indicator Status:

  • Atlantic and Gulf Coastal Plain: FACU (taxonomic split from wetland indicator species)
  • Eastern Mountains and Piedmont: FACU (taxonomic split from wetland indicator species)
  • Great Plains: FACU (taxonomic split from wetland indicator species)
  • Midwest: FACU (taxonomic split from wetland indicator species)
  • Northcentral & Northeast: FACU (taxonomic split from wetland indicator species)

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