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Juncus bufonius Linnaeus. Subgenus: Agathryon. Section: Tenageia. Toad Rush. Phen: (May-) Jun-Nov. Hab: Wet, open ground, roadsides, dried pools, drawdown shores. Dist: Cosmopolitan, and polymorphic; a number of varieties and segregate species have sometimes been recognized, but need additional study.

ID notes:Can only be mistaken for J. ranarius or depauperate J. tenuis: J. bufonus can be distinguished from J. tenuis by its small stature and inflorescence beginning just a few inches above the ground. Very similar to J. ranarius (see characters in key).

Origin/Endemic status: Native

Synonymy: = AqW, Mi, NE, NY; = Agathryon bufonium (L.) Záv.Drábk. & Proćków – Proćków & Záveská Drábková (2023); = Juncus bufonius L. var. bufonius – C, F, G, K1, K4, Mo1; < Juncus bufonius L. – Ar, ETx1, FNA22, GrPl, GW1, K2, K3, Meso6, NcTx, Pa, RAB, S, Tat, Tn, Tx, Va, W, WH3, WV, Kirschner (2002b), Kirschner (2002c); > Juncus bufonius L. var. bufonius – Il; > Juncus bufonius L. var. congestus Wahlenb. – Il

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Wetland Indicator Status:

  • Atlantic and Gulf Coastal Plain: FACW
  • Eastern Mountains and Piedmont: FACW
  • Great Plains: OBL (taxonomic split from wetland indicator species)
  • Midwest: FACW (taxonomic split from wetland indicator species)
  • Northcentral & Northeast: FACW (taxonomic split from wetland indicator species)

Heliophily: 9

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image of plant© Aidan Campos source | Original Image ⭷
image of plant© Aidan Campos source | Original Image ⭷
image of plant© Keith Bradley | Original Image ⭷
image of plant© Bruce A. Sorrie | Original Image ⭷
image of plant© Erik Danielson source | Original Image ⭷

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