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Oenothera fruticosa Linnaeus var. fruticosa . Narrowleaf Sundrops. Phen: Apr-Aug. Hab: Piedmont hardpan woodlands, mafic and ultramafic barrens and glades, dry oak-hickory woodlands, longleaf pine sandhills, dry roadsides. Dist: SC north to PA, mostly in the Piedmont.

ID notes: The distribution of var. fruticosa overlaps with O. tetragona in VA and MD, where the two can be difficult to distinguish and may intergrade. O. fruticosa var. fruticosa is most reliably separated by its strongly clavate, usually densely short-pilose or hirtellous capsules (vs. oblong, glandular-puberulent, perhaps with a few eglandular hairs), and denser silvery-strigose pubescence, and usually oblanceolate or narrow-elliptic, entire leaves (vs. lanceolate or linear-lanceolate).

Origin/Endemic status: Endemic

Taxonomy Comments: The Oenothera fruticosa complex needs further taxonomic and nomenclatural study to determine the validity and relative ranges of various entities; mapping of members of the complex is tentative.

Synonymy: = F, G, Munz (1965); > Kneiffia arenicola Small – S, S13; > Kneiffia fruticosa (L.) Raim. – S; > Kneiffia fruticosa var. fruticosa – S13; > Kneiffia linearis (Michx.) Spach – S, S13; > Kneiffia longipedicellata Small – S13; > Kneiffia semiglandulosa Pennell – S; < Oenothera fruticosa L. – Ar, C, Fl4, Mi, RAB, Tn, Va, WH3; < Oenothera fruticosa L. ssp. fruticosa – FNA10, Il, K1, K3, K4, NE, NY, Pa, W, Straley (1977), Wagner, Hoch, & Raven (2007); > Oenothera fruticosa L. var. eamesii (B.L.Rob.) S.F.Blake – F, Munz (1965); > Oenothera fruticosa L. var. humifusa Allen – F, G, Munz (1965); > Oenothera fruticosa L. var. linearis (Michx.) S.Watson – F, WV

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Wetland Indicator Status:

  • Atlantic and Gulf Coastal Plain: FACU (taxonomic split from wetland indicator species)
  • Eastern Mountains and Piedmont: FAC (taxonomic split from wetland indicator species)
  • Great Plains: FAC (taxonomic split from wetland indicator species)
  • Midwest: FACU (taxonomic split from wetland indicator species)
  • Northcentral & Northeast: FACU (taxonomic split from wetland indicator species)

Heliophily ?: 8

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image of plant© Joey Shaw source | Original Image ⭷
image of plant© Joey Shaw source | Original Image ⭷
image of plant© J.W. Hardin | Original Image ⭷
image of plant© Joey Shaw source | Original Image ⭷
image of plant© Joey Shaw source | Original Image ⭷
image of plant© Alan Weakley source | Original Image ⭷

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