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Houstonia caerulea Linnaeus. Quaker Ladies, Innocence, Common Bluet, Pissabed. Phen: (Late Jan-) Apr-Jul; May-Aug. Hab: Forests, woodlands, openings, lawns, a wide variety of disturbed sites. Dist: ME, ON, and WI south to s. GA, s. AL, w. LA, and OK.

ID notes: The flowers of this species and Houstonia serpyllifolia are very similar; H. caerulea is a somewhat duller blue.

Origin/Endemic status: Native

Synonymy: = Ar, G, Il, Mi, NY, Pa, RAB, S, Tat, Tn, Va, W, WV, Terrell (1991), Terrell (1996); = Hedyotis caerulea (L.) Hook. – C, GW2; = Houstonia caerulea L. var. caerulea – F, Pease & Moore (1907); < Hedyotis caerulea (L.) Hook. – Rogers (1987); < Houstonia caerulea L. – K1, K3, K4, NE

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Wetland Indicator Status:

  • Atlantic and Gulf Coastal Plain: FAC
  • Eastern Mountains and Piedmont: FACU
  • Great Plains: FACU (taxonomic split from wetland indicator species)
  • Midwest: FAC (taxonomic split from wetland indicator species)
  • Northcentral & Northeast: FACU (taxonomic split from wetland indicator species)

Heliophily ?: 6

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image of plant© Erik Danielson source | Original Image ⭷
image of plant© Edwin Bridges | Original Image ⭷
image of plant© Jim Fowler | Original Image ⭷
image of plant© Keith Bradley | Original Image ⭷
image of plant© Gary P. Fleming | Original Image ⭷
image of plant© Alan Cressler: Houstonia caerulea, Castilleja coccinea, and Packera serpenticola, Buck Creek Dunite Barrens, Nantahala National Forest, Clay County, North Carolina 2 by Alan Cressler source | Original Image ⭷

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