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*Medicago sativa Linnaeus ssp. falcata (Linnaeus) Arcangeli. Alfalfa, Lucerne, Yellow Alfalfa, Sickle Medick. Phen: Apr-Jul (-Oct). Hab: Roadsides, fields, disturbed areas. Dist: Native of Europe and sw. Asia.

Origin/Endemic status: Eurasia

Taxonomy Comments: Havananda et al. (2010) explained the complex evolution of the M. sativa complex, including its selection for human uses. Small & Jomphe (1989) recognized various subspecies and varieties within the complex. The complex human-influenced set of morphotypes, of diploid, allotetraploid, and autotetraploid origin, their interfertility, and the difficulties of associating American material with European wild taxa, make taxonomic delimitation uncertain. We here follow Small (2023) in recognizing 3 entities at subspecific rank.

Synonymy: = C, FNA11.2, GrPl, K1, K3, K4; = Medicago falcata – F, G, Il, Mi, NE, NY, S, SE3, Tat, Isely (1998); < Medicago sativa L. – Ar, Bah, Fl3, NcTx, Pa, RAB, Tn, Tx, Va, W, WH3, WV, Woods & Orcutt (2017)

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Wetland Indicator Status:

  • Atlantic and Gulf Coastal Plain: UPL (taxonomic split from wetland indicator species)
  • Eastern Mountains and Piedmont: UPL (taxonomic split from wetland indicator species)
  • Great Plains: UPL (taxonomic split from wetland indicator species)
  • Midwest: FACU (taxonomic split from wetland indicator species)
  • Northcentral & Northeast: UPL (taxonomic split from wetland indicator species)

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