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Xanthium echinatum Murray. Cocklebur. Phen: Aug-Oct. Hab: Dunes, beaches. Dist: VA northwards along the coast.

Origin/Endemic status: Native

Synonymy: = F, Fernald (1946); < Xanthium orientale L. – Tomasello (2018); < Xanthium strumarium L. – FNA21, GW2, K4, Pa, Va; < Xanthium strumarium L. ssp. cavanillesii (Schouw) D.Löve & Dans. var. cavanillesii – Löve & Dansereau (1959); < Xanthium strumarium L. var. canadense (Mill.) Torr. & A.Gray – C, G, K1, NE, NY, Oh3, SE1

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Wetland Indicator Status:

  • Atlantic and Gulf Coastal Plain: FAC (taxonomic split from wetland indicator species)
  • Great Plains: FAC (taxonomic split from wetland indicator species)
  • Midwest: FAC (taxonomic split from wetland indicator species)
  • Northcentral & Northeast: FAC (taxonomic split from wetland indicator species)

Heliophily: 9

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image of plant© Cristobal Jimenez, some rights reserved (CC BY-NC-ND), uploaded by Cristobal Jimenez source CC-BY-NC-ND | Original Image ⭷ Warning: was NOT research grade.
image of plant© Mercè Vallicrosa Novell, some rights reserved (CC BY-NC), uploaded by Mercè Vallicrosa Novell source CC-BY-NC | Original Image ⭷
image of plant© David Carrera, some rights reserved (CC BY-NC-ND), uploaded by David Carrera source CC-BY-NC-ND | Original Image ⭷ Warning: was NOT research grade.
image of plant© Cristobal Jimenez, some rights reserved (CC BY-NC-ND), uploaded by Cristobal Jimenez source CC-BY-NC-ND | Original Image ⭷ Warning: was NOT research grade.
image of plant© sdickman, some rights reserved (CC BY-NC) source CC-BY-NC, permission granted to NCBG | Original Image ⭷
image of plant© David Carrera, some rights reserved (CC BY-NC-ND), uploaded by David Carrera source CC-BY-NC-ND | Original Image ⭷ Warning: was NOT research grade.
image of plant© sdickman, some rights reserved (CC BY-NC) source CC-BY-NC, permission granted to NCBG | Original Image ⭷
image of plant© sppiraea, some rights reserved (CC BY-NC) source CC-BY-NC | Original Image ⭷ Warning: was NOT research grade.

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