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Xanthium strumarium Linnaeus. European Cocklebur. Phen: Jul-Nov. Hab: Ballast, waste areas near ports. Dist: Native of Europe.

Origin/Endemic status: Europe

Synonymy: = F, Fernald (1946), Tomasello (2018); = n/a – Tat; = Xanthium strumarium L. ssp. strumarium var. strumarium – Löve & Dansereau (1959); = Xanthium strumarium L. var. strumarium – C, G, K1, NE, NY; < Xanthium strumarium L. – FNA21, K3, K4, Mi, Mo2, Pa

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Wetland Indicator Status:

  • Atlantic and Gulf Coastal Plain: FAC (taxonomic split from wetland indicator species)
  • Eastern Mountains and Piedmont: FAC (taxonomic split from wetland indicator species)
  • Great Plains: FAC (taxonomic split from wetland indicator species)
  • Midwest: FAC (taxonomic split from wetland indicator species)
  • Northcentral & Northeast: FAC (taxonomic split from wetland indicator species)

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image of plant© Bruce Sorrie | Original Image ⭷
image of plant© Gary P. Fleming | Original Image ⭷
image of plant© Aidan Campos source | Original Image ⭷
image of plant© Aidan Campos source
image of plant© Erik Danielson source | Original Image ⭷
image of plant© Erik Danielson source | Original Image ⭷
image of plant© Aidan Campos source
image of plant© Bruce A. Sorrie | Original Image ⭷
image of plant© Bruce Sorrie
image of plant© Erik Danielson source | Original Image ⭷
image of plant© J.W. Hardin | Original Image ⭷

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