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FamilyScientific Name Common NameHabitatDistributionImage
CyperaceaeCyperus acuminatusPointed FlatsedgeWet meadows or depressions, especially in glades, barrens, or woodlands over limestone; also ditches and sidewalk cracks.IL west to ND, south to w. LA, TX, and n. Mexico (COA, NLE, TAM); disjunct from WA to s. CA; disjunct eastward at scattered localities in VA, NC, GA (Echols 2007), TN, KY, and OH (where probably native), and NY and NH (where probably introduced).image of plant
CyperaceaeCyperus articulatusChintúlMarshes, tidal and non-tidal.Se. SC (formerly) south to s. FL west to e. TX, and south into tropical America.image of plant
CyperaceaeCyperus bipartitusSlender Flatsedge, Shining FlatsedgeDepression ponds, low fields, ditches, marshes, muddy river shores, along streams, especially in seasonally flooded situations.ME and QC west to MN and WA, south to FL (Wakulla County) (Kunzer et al. 2009), GA, LA, TX, NM, AZ, and CA.image of plant
CyperaceaeCyperus compressusPoorland FlatsedgeSandy fields, disturbed areas.Pantropical and warm temperate, north in North America to s. NY, s. OH, s. IL, and e. TX, the northern extent of the native range uncertain. Reported for s. IN by Bill Thomas (pers.comm., 2022).image of plant
CyperaceaeCyperus croceusBaldwin’s FlatsedgePine savannas, pine flatwoods, disturbed areas.NJ and MO south through the New World tropics.image of plant
CyperaceaeCyperus cuspidatusSandy fields, disturbed areas.S. SC south to FL, west to LA; New World tropics.image of plant
CyperaceaeCyperus dentatusToothed FlatsedgeLow sandy areas, sand and cobble bars, sandy shorelines, Shenandoah Valley sinkhole ponds.NS and QC south to n. VA; disjunct inland in w. VA, se. TN, and nw. IN. Previous reports from further south in the Coastal Plain appear to be based on material of C. lecontei.image of plant
CyperaceaeCyperus diandrusUmbrella FlatsedgeInterdune swales, ponds, exposed river and lake shores, usually where seasonally ponded.ME west to ND, south to VA, c. TN, n. AL, IL, MO, and IA.image of plant
CyperaceaeCyperus difformisVariable Flatsedge, Smallflower Umbrella SedgeDisturbed areas.Native of Old World tropics. Reported for s. IN by Bill Thomas (pers.comm., 2022).image of plant
CyperaceaeCyperus distansMarshes; probably introduced from tropical America.Native of Neotropics and Paleotropics.image of plant
CyperaceaeCyperus distinctusMarshes, wet pine flatwoods, wet hammocks, ditches.E. SC south to Panhandle FL and s. FL; se. LA; Bahamas (New Providence Cay).image of plant
CyperaceaeCyperus echinatusRound-headed Flatsedge, Globe FlatsedgeSandy woodlands, forests, fields, thin soils on outcrops, sand and gravel bars.CT and NY west to s. OH, IL, and se. KS, south to n. FL, TX, and ne. Mexico.image of plant
CyperaceaeCyperus entrerianusWoodrush FlatsedgeBottomland hardwood forests, coastal grasslands, marshes, vacant lots, disturbed areas.Native of temperate South America. Established from E. GA south to s. FL and west to e. and s. TX. Carter (1990), Rosen, Carter, & Bryson (2006), and Carter, Baker, & Morris (2009) discuss the spread of this noxious weed in the Southeastern United States. Bradley et al. [in prep.] report for Coastal Plain of SC (Jasper County).image of plant
CyperaceaeCyperus eragrostisLovegrass FlatsedgeDisturbed wetlands.Native of tropical America.image of plant
CyperaceaeCyperus erythrorhizosRedrooted FlatsedgeMarshes, ditches, shores, mud flats.MA west to ND and WA, south to n. FL, LA, TX, AZ, CA, and Mexico (BCN, TAB, TAM).image of plant
CyperaceaeCyperus esculentus var. leptostachyusYellow Nutsedge, Yellow Nutgrass, Wild Chufa, Earth-almondFields, roadsides, shores, other disturbed areas.The species is widespread in tropical and warm temperate North, Central, and South America.image of plant
CyperaceaeCyperus esculentus var. macrostachyusYellow Nutsedge, Yellow Nutgrass, Wild Chufa, Earth-almondDisturbed areas.Var. macrostachyus is the main variety in Central America north into s. United States.image of plant
CyperaceaeCyperus filicinusFern FlatsedgeBrackish marshes, other maritime habitats.ME to s. FL, west to LA; West Indies.image of plant
CyperaceaeCyperus filiculmisSoutheastern FlatsedgeLongleaf pine sandhills, other sandy or rocky woodlands, forests, and fields.DE and MD south to s. peninsular FL, west to e. TX. Reported as new for DE (Longbottom, Naczi, & Knapp 2016).image of plant
CyperaceaeCyperus flavescensYellow FlatsedgeLow fields, ditches, marshes, especially where seasonally flooded.Pantropical and warm temperate, north in North America to MA, MI, MO, and KS.image of plant
CyperaceaeCyperus flavicomusWhite-edged FlatsedgeDitches, marshes, natural or artificial ponds, especially where seasonally flooded.Se. VA and KY south through the New World tropics.image of plant
CyperaceaeCyperus fuscusBlack Galingale, Brown GalingaleWet, disturbed areas.Native of temperate Eurasia. See Bryson et al. (1996), Carter, Baker, & Morris (2009).image of plant
CyperaceaeCyperus granitophilusGranite FlatsedgeGranitic flatrocks, rarely on diabase flatrocks of the Piedmont, Altamaha Grit glades of the Coastal Plain, and sandstone outcrops of the Cumberland Plateau.Sc. VA south to ec. AL in the Piedmont; disjunct in se. and c. TN on sandstone and limestone and in sc. GA on Altamaha Grit; disjunct in c. TX and s. OK (O'Kennon & Taylor 2015). Plants reported as C. granitophilus by O'Kennon & Taylor (2015) are more closely related to C. squarrosus and are better treated as C. squarrosus var. runyonii (R. Carter, pers.comm., 2022).image of plant
CyperaceaeCyperus grayiGray’s FlatsedgeLongleaf pine sandhills, dunes, other dry soils.NH south to GA and Panhandle FL (Liberty County) (Sorrie & LeBlond 2008). Reports in the Piedmont and Mountains of NC, SC, GA, and AL appear to all be false reports.image of plant
CyperaceaeCyperus haspanSheathed FlatsedgeTidal marshes, other marshes, ponded depressions, low fields, ditches, waterfowl impoundments, weed in rice fields.Pantropical in distribution, north in North America to se. VA (MD?), sc. TN, c. AR, and c. TX.image of plant
CyperaceaeCyperus houghtoniiHoughton's FlatsedgeDry upland sites, shale barrens, rock outcrops, perhaps associated with mafic or calcareous rocks.MA, VT, and QC west to MN, south to w. VA, WV, nc. NC, and nw. IN.image of plant
CyperaceaeCyperus hystricinusBristly FlatsedgeDry woodlands and forests.NJ south to n. FL, west to e. TX, mostly on the Coastal Plain.image of plant
CyperaceaeCyperus involucratusUmbrella-PlantCultivated and persistent, also naturalizing in disturbed areas.Native of Africa. Naturalized north at least to Panhandle FL (Kunzer et al. 2009).image of plant
CyperaceaeCyperus iriaRice-field FlatsedgeMarshes, ditches, disturbed wet areas, sandbars and gravelbars.Native of Old World. Reported for s. IN by Bill Thomas (pers.comm., 2022).image of plant
CyperaceaeCyperus laevigatusBrackish marshes.Native of sw. North America and New World tropics.image of plant
CyperaceaeCyperus lancastriensisMany-flowered Flatsedge, Porter’s FlatsedgeDry woodlands, forests, and fields.NJ west to WV, OH, and MO, south to GA, c. MS (Morris & MacDonald 2012), and AR.image of plant
CyperaceaeCyperus lanceolatusWet places.Se. GA and ne. FL west to LA and c. TX (?), south into the Neotropics; also Africa.image of plant
CyperaceaeCyperus leconteiLimesink ponds, low pinelands and seepages, interdune ponds, ditches, wet sands along roads, and other disturbed areas.Se. NC south to s. FL, west to w. LA. Sorrie (1998b) reports it for e. GA (Glynn County).image of plant
CyperaceaeCyperus lupulinus var. lupulinusGreat Plains FlatsedgeDry sterile soils in fields and meadows.MA and VT west to MN, south to NC, n. SC, TX; disjunct in ID, WA, and OR.image of plant
CyperaceaeCyperus lupulinus var. macilentusDry sterile soils in fields and meadows.ME, QC, and MN south to w. VA, w. NC, nw. GA, and MO.image of plant
CyperaceaeCyperus ochraceusMarshes, ditches, wet disturbed areas.Se. GA (Jones & Coile 1988), s. FL, s. AL, s. MS, LA, TX, south into Mexico, Central America, and South America.image of plant
CyperaceaeCyperus engelmanniiSlender Sand FlatsedgeAlluvial and other damp to wet soils.North-central and northeastern North America, MA west to s. ON, MN and NE, south to se. NC and MO. Distribution in our region is poorly known.image of plant
CyperaceaeCyperus odoratus var. odoratusFragrant FlatsedgeLow fields, marshes, ditches, sandbars.Pantropical, north in North America to MA, se. ME, ON, MN, KS, NM, AZ, and CA.image of plant
CyperaceaeCyperus ovatusSandy beaches, maritime forests, and pinelands.Se. NC south to s. FL, west to s. AL.image of plant
CyperaceaeCyperus oxylepisSharp-scale FlatsedgeDisturbed wet areas, marshes, saline areas.Native of South America.image of plant
CyperaceaeCyperus pilosusRice fields, ditches.Native of e. Asia.image of plant
CyperaceaeCyperus planifoliusBrackish marshes.Se. GA (Jones & Coile 1988) south to s. FL; West Indies; Central and South America.image of plant
CyperaceaeCyperus plukenetiiStarburst Flatsedge, Plukenet’s FlatsedgeLongleaf pine sandhills, sandy woodlands, thin soils of rock outcrops, and dry, disturbed areas.NJ, KY, se. MO, and se. OK, south to c. peninsular FL and e. TX.image of plant
CyperaceaeCyperus polystachyosCoast FlatsedgeLow fields, ditches, and marshes.Pantropical and warm temperate, north in North America to ME, MA, KY, MO, and OK.image of plant
CyperaceaeCyperus pseudovegetusGreen Flatsedge, Marsh FlatsedgeMarshes, ditches, depressions.NJ and MA, west to s. IL, s. MO, and OK, south to FL and TX.image of plant
CyperaceaeCyperus pumilusDisturbed wet areas.Native of the Old World, occurring in n. FL and se. GA.image of plant
CyperaceaeCyperus refractusReflexed FlatsedgeDry sandy or rocky woodlands and forests, also in somewhat moister sites.NJ west to OH and MO, south to SC, GA, AL, and AR.image of plant
CyperaceaeCyperus retrofractusRough FlatsedgeDry sandy or rocky woodlands and fields.NJ west to s. OH, and se. MO, south to GA. AL, and AR.image of plant
CyperaceaeCyperus retrorsusPineland FlatsedgeDry woodlands, forests, and rock outcrops.S. NY south to FL, west to TX, mostly on the Coastal Plain, but north in the interior to KY and se. OK.image of plant
CyperaceaeCyperus rotundusPurple Nutsedge, Nutgrass, Cocograss, TulilloGardens, fields, disturbed areas.Pantropical and warm temperate in distribution (though extending less far north than C. esculentus).image of plant
CyperaceaeCyperus sanguinolentusDitches, disturbed wet areas.Native of Asia, known in North America from e. GA west to LA.image of plant
CyperaceaeCyperus surinamensisMarshes, pond edges, disturbed wet areas.Se. NC south to s. FL, west to KS, OK, TX, and south into Mexico and tropical America.image of plant
CyperaceaeCyperus tetragonusFour-angled FlatsedgeMaritime forests and dunes, edges of brackish marshes.E. NC south to s. FL and FL Panhandle. Reports of the species in s. AL (Woods, Diamond, & Burkhalter 2016) are based on specimens of C. thyrsiflorus.image of plant
CyperaceaeCyperus thyrsiflorusSouthern FlatsedgeCalcareous woodlands/hammocks, swamp edges, and shell middens.E. SC south to s. FL, west to se. TX; West Indies; Mexico to South America.image of plant
CyperaceaeCyperus virensMarshes and ditches.E. NC south to c. peninsular FL, west to TX; Mexico to Argentina. Also as a chrome ore waif in VA.image of plant
CyperaceaeCyperus aggregatusDisturbed areas, apparently introduced on ballast, perhaps only a waif and no longer present in some places in our region.Native of tropical America.image of plant
CyperaceaeCyperus microiriaExposed shorelines, other disturbed wet areas.Native of e. Asia. Naturalized in CT, DE, KY, OH, MA, NJ, NY, PA, and VA.image of plant
CyperaceaeCyperus drummondiiDrummond's FlatsedgeFlatwoods ponds, savannas, coastal prairies, ditches, disturbed depressions.SC south to Panhandle FL, west to e. TX; West Indies; Central America; South America.
CyperaceaeCyperus fraternusDisturbed depressions, ditches.Reported for several counties in the GA Coastal Plain (Carter, Baker, & Morris 2009)
CyperaceaeCyperus schweinitziiSand FlatsedgeSandy soils.VT, MA, MN, and Albert, south to s. NJ, se. and sw. PA (Rhoads & Block 2007), n. KY, OH, MO, TX, NM, UT, and Mexico (CHH, COA, DGO, JAL, ZAC).image of plant
CyperaceaeCyperus serotinusTidalmarsh FlatsedgeTidal marshes.Native of Eurasia. Reported as naturalized in s. NJ, DE, and PA (FNA, Kartesz 1999).image of plant
CyperaceaeCyperus brevifoliusPerennial Greenhead SedgeMoist soils of fields, ditches, lawns.Pantropical, north in North America to n. NC, se. OK, and CA. Likely to occur in s. VA.image of plant
CyperaceaeCyperus brevifolioidesAsiatic Greenhead SedgeRiver sand bars, tidal marshes, tidal shores, moist soils of pastures and ditches.Apparently introduced and native of e. Asia. Its distribution in North America is still somewhat obscure (because of confusion with C. brevifolius), but it is currently known from scattered locations in NC, SC, VA, CT, PA, MD, TN, AL, GA, NJ, DE, AR, MS, and KY. Reported for SC by Hill & Horn (1997), as K. brevifolioides.image of plant
CyperaceaeCyperus sesquiflorusWhitehead SedgeMoist soils of fields, ditches, lawns, shores of ponds and rivers, sand and gravel bars.Pantropical, north in North America to ne. NC and se. ARimage of plant
CyperaceaeCyperus hortensisAnnual Greenhead SedgeMoist soils of fields, ditches, lawns, shores of ponds and rivers.Pantropical, north in North America to e. PA, MO, and e. KS.image of plant
CyperaceaeCyperus metziiCrested Greenhead SedgeLawns, turf farms, athletic fields, golf courses, other disturbed areas.Native of Asia. Reported for AL by Barger et al. (2012)image of plant
CyperaceaeCyperus aristulatusMoist ground.IL, MO, NE, CO, UT, and WA south to TX, NM, AZ, CA, and Mexico.image of plant
CyperaceaeCyperus neotropicalisAmerican Lipocarpha, American HalfchaffRiverine sandbars, depression ponds, interdune swales and ponds, borrow pits, impoundment shores, ditches, other moist exposed soil.Se. VA south to s. FL, west to AL.image of plant
CyperaceaeCyperus subsquarrosusSmallflower HalfchaffRiverbank draw-down zones, other moist sandy areas, like seasonally flooded shores of artificial impoundments.ME west to ON and MN, south to s. FL and TX; south into tropical America.image of plant
CyperaceaeCyperus leptocarpusDitches, moist ground.Native of Asia and Australia.image of plant
CyperaceaeCyperus blepharoleptosCuban-bulrushPonds and marshes, especially in floating vegetation mats, ditches.Tropical America; very likely accidentally introduced in the Southeastern US via shipping (first known occurrences in Mobile, AL in 1882 and New Orleans, LA in 1889).image of plant
CyperaceaeCyperus alopecuroidesDisturbed wet areas.Native of Old World tropics. Reported for FL in FNA and for MS in Kartesz (2010).
CyperaceaeCyperus digitatusFinger FlatsedgeDisturbed wet areas.Pantropical, north in North America to FL Panhandle, LA, and TX.image of plant
CyperaceaeCyperus elegansRoyal Flatsedge, Sticky FlatsedgeDitches, wet open areas, coastal rock barrens.FL, AL, MS, TX, and NM, south to South America.image of plant
CyperaceaeCyperus ligularisSwamp FlatsedgeBrackish marshes, beaches, disturbed wetlands.FL and AL south into Mexico, Central America. South America; Africaimage of plant
CyperaceaeCyperus proliferDwarf PapyrusPond shores, marshes, ditches.Native of tropical e. Africa. Also reported for se. VA (Kartesz 2010).image of plant
CyperaceaeCyperus reflexusDisturbed wet areas.Native of sw. United States south to tropical America. OK south to LA, TX, and Mexico. Reported for AL (Crenshaw County) by Diamond (2013b).
CyperaceaeCyperus cephalanthusButtonbush FlatsedgeCoastal prairies.LA west to se. TX; South America.
CyperaceaeCyperus filiformisFlorida FlatsedgePine rocklands, coastal strands, rockland hammocks, disturbed areas over limestone, including cemeteries.S. FL; Bahamas.image of plant
CyperaceaeCyperus floribundusPrairies and marshes.S. TX south to ne. Mexico (TAM).image of plant
CyperaceaeCyperus fuligineusLimestone FlatsedgePine rocklands, coastal rock barrens, edges of tidal marshes on limestone.Florida Keys; West Indies.image of plant
CyperaceaeCyperus giganteusGiant Flatsedge, "Mexican Papyrus"Marshes.Native of tropical America (West Indies, Central America and South America).
CyperaceaeCyperus grayoidesSand Prairie Flatsedge, Illinois FlatsedgeLongleaf pine sandhills, other dry sandy communities.IL and MO south to w. LA and e. TX.image of plant
CyperaceaeCyperus lentiginosusOpen areas, thickets.S. FL; se. TX south through Mexico and Central America to n. South America; West Indies.
CyperaceaeCyperus pseudothyrsiflorusDisturbed areas, damp soils.TX south into Mexico.
CyperaceaeCyperus setigerusLean FlatsedgeDitches, pondshores.MO and NM south to MS, TX.image of plant
CyperaceaeCyperus hemidrummondiiDrummond's Half-chaff SedgeExposed wet sandy soils.OH, WI, ND, and MT south to LA, TX, NM, and AZ.
CyperaceaeCyperus pedunculatusBeachstarOcean beaches.East coast of c. and s. peninsular FL; West Indies; se. Mexico (ROO, YUC), Central America, and South America; Africa; s. Asia; Australia; Pacific Islands.image of plant
CyperaceaeCyperus neochinensisAdventive in moist ground, perhaps merely a waif.Native of s. Asia.image of plant
CyperaceaeCyperus nashiiNash’s FlatsedgeLongleaf pine sandhills and Florida scrub.E. GA south to s. FL, west to Panhandle FL.image of plant
CyperaceaeCyperus species 1Diminutive FlatsedgeInfrequent to locally abundant (following soil disturbance) on Florida scrub, stabilized dunes, and sandridges, generally on open white sands, near the coast but also inland on riverine (and aeolian?) dunes.Se. VA south to s. FL, west to s. MS.
CyperaceaeCyperus excurrensExcurrent FlatsedgeSporadically appearing in exsiccated bottoms of karst ponds in the Coastal Plain.Known only from sw. GA, perhaps to be expected in se. AL and FL Panhandle.
CyperaceaeCyperus papyrusPapyrusStream banks, marshes.Native of Mediterranean Europe, w. Asia, and n. Africa.image of plant
CyperaceaeCyperus sphacelatusLawns, disturbed moist areas.Native of the New World and Old World tropics, likely introduced to FL from the West Indies (Carter et al. 1996).image of plant
CyperaceaeCyperus unioloidesSwamps.Native of Neotropics and Paleotropics.
CyperaceaeCyperus hyalinusQueensland SedgeDisturbed upland areas.Native of se. Asia and Australia; known in North America from s. FL.image of plant
CyperaceaeCyperus esculentus var. heermanniiDisturbed areas.Native of w. United States and Mexico. Map is particularly uncertain.
CyperaceaeCyperus fugaxWithering Flatsedge
CyperaceaeCyperus hermaphroditusFloodplain forests.TX, south to tropical America.
CyperaceaeCyperus prolixusDisturbed areas.Native of the Neotropics.
CyperaceaeCyperus richardiiOpen disturbed sites, especially roadsides and lawns.Native of Old World, known in North America from s. FL.image of plant
CyperaceaeCyperus albostriatusDisturbed riparian and mesic slope forests.Native of s. Africa.image of plant
CyperaceaeCyperus pallidicolorSe. and c. TX; sw. NM, and s. AZ south through Mexico and Central America to South America. The reports (BONAP 2021) for se. TX are puzzling and need additional confirmation.
CyperaceaeCyperus nipponicusDisturbed areas.Native of e. Asia (e. China, Japan, Korea, e. Russia). Reported for s. IN by Bill Thomas (pers.comm., 2022).image of plant
CyperaceaeCyperus retroflexus var. retroflexusCropped fields, seasonally damp, disturbed areas.AL west to NM, south to Mexico.
CyperaceaeCyperus retroflexus var. pumilusCropped fields, seasonally damp, disturbed areas.AL west to NM, south to Mexico.image of plant
CyperaceaeCyperus squarrosus var. squarrosusAwned FlatsedgeMoist depressions and seepages on granitic and other rocks, drawdown riverbanks, swales, shores, coastal rock barrens, other moist disturbed sites.Nearly cosmopolitan in distribution, in Old World and New World.image of plant
CyperaceaeCyperus squarrosus var. runyoniiTexas Awned FlatsedgeOn sands or granite.C. OK south to c. TX and s. TX. Reports of C. granitophilus from this area (O'Kennon & Taylor 2015) represent this taxon (R. Carter, pers.comm. 2022).
CyperaceaeCyperus esculentus var. esculentusChufaApparently sparingly cultivated, and persistent.Native of Eurasia.
CyperaceaeCyperus strigosus var. strigosusStraw Flatsedge, False NutsedgeMarshes, ditches, wet flatwoods, wet disturbed areas.QC west to SD, south to FL and TX; also in w. North America.
CyperaceaeCyperus strigosus var. stenolepisMarshes, ditches, wet flatwoods, wet disturbed areas.NC south to FL, west to TX. Distribution map is quite speculative.

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