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FamilyScientific Name Common NameHabitatDistributionImage
EuphorbiaceaeEuphorbia bombensisSouthern Seaside Spurge, Dixie SandmatOpen sands of dunes, dune blowouts and overwashes, often growing with perennial grasses such as Uniola paniculata, but preferring open sands with little competition, sometimes mixed with the more common E. polygonifolia. Johnson (1992) contrasted the habitat of this species with that of the closely similar E. polygonifolia; E. bombensis preferring areas behind the foredune, while E. polygonifolia preferring the pioneer situation on the upper beach and foredune front.E. VA south to s. FL along the Atlantic, from s. FL to TX and Mexico (CAM, ROO, TAB, TAM, VER, YUC) along the Gulf of Mexico, and south into n. South America.image of plant
EuphorbiaceaeEuphorbia commutataWoodland Spurge, Tinted SpurgeRich forests and rock outcrops, over calcareous or mafic rocks.PA west to s. ON and MN, south to ne. and Panhandle FL and ne. TX.image of plant
EuphorbiaceaeEuphorbia cordifoliaHeartleaf SandmatOpen sands of very dry longleaf pine sandhills, Florida scrub, other dry, open habitats.Se. NC south to c. peninsular FL and west to se. OK (Singhurst, Buthod, & Holmes 2012) and s. TX.image of plant
EuphorbiaceaeEuphorbia corollataEastern Flowering SpurgeWoodlands and forests.NH and MA west to s. ON, MI, WI, MN, and NE, south to se.VA, c. NC, n. GA, s. AL, and e. TX (some of the northern distribution may be by expansion northwards in disturbed areas).image of plant
EuphorbiaceaeEuphorbia cumulicolaCoastal Dune SandmatDunes, Florida scrub, scrubby pine flatwoods.Se. GA (Camden County) south to s. peninsular FL; allegedly also in w. Panhandle FL (Escambia County).image of plant
EuphorbiaceaeEuphorbia curtisiiWhite Sandhills Spurge, Curtis's SpurgeLongleaf pine sandhills, other dry open areas, such as hardpan woodlands.Sc. and se. NC to ne. FL and w. Panhandle FL, on the Coastal Plain, and less typically the lower Piedmont.image of plant
EuphorbiaceaeEuphorbia cyathophoraPainted Leaf, Fire-on-the-mountainBottomland forests, dunes, streambanks, disturbed habitats.E. VA, KS, and CA south into the New World tropics, the original range obscure.image of plant
EuphorbiaceaeEuphorbia cyparissiasCypress Spurge, Graveyard SpurgeRoadbanks, graveyards, waste places.Native of Europe.image of plant
EuphorbiaceaeEuphorbia dentataPainted Leaf, Wild Poinsettia, Toothed SpurgeBottomland forests, disturbed areas, hedgerows, thickets, railroad cinders.Native of sc. North America. The native distribution obscured by spread since, but apparently OH west to CO, south to LA, TX, NM, AZ, and to s. Mexico (at least).image of plant
EuphorbiaceaeEuphorbia discoidalisSummer SpurgeLongleaf pine sandhills, shortleaf pine woodlands in the Interior Highlands.E. and c. GA (or e. SC?) south and west to Panhandle FL and e. TX; disjunct in Ouachita Mountains of sw. AR (Theo Witsell, pers. comm., 2019).image of plant
EuphorbiaceaeEuphorbia virgataWolf's-milk, Leafy SpurgeFields, roadsides, disturbed areas.Native of Eurasia.image of plant
EuphorbiaceaeEuphorbia exsertaMaroon Sandhills Spurge, Coastal Sand SpurgeLongleaf pine sandhills, especially in loamier and slightly moister sites.Sc. NC south to c. peninsular and e. Panhandle FL; disjunct in se. VA (Sussex County) (Belden et al. 2004)image of plant
EuphorbiaceaeEuphorbia falcataSickle SpurgeRoadsides, other disturbed areas.Native of Europe.
EuphorbiaceaeEuphorbia helioscopiaWartweed, Madwoman’s-milk, Sun Spurge, Summer SpurgeDisturbed areas, roadsides, cultivated ground.Native of Europe.image of plant
EuphorbiaceaeEuphorbia heterophyllaFiddler’s Spurge, Mexican Fireplant, Catalina, Jacob's-ladderDisturbed areas.VA, NC, SC, GA, TX, and NM south through Mexico, Central America, and South America; some of the distribution is likely by introduction.image of plant
EuphorbiaceaeEuphorbia hirtaPillpod SandmatFields, disturbed ground, waste areas, in and around greenhouses, perhaps only adventive in the northern part of our area.E. NC, c. SC, south to s. FL, west to TX, and south through Mexico, and Central and South America, the pre-Columbian distribution obscure. Reported for Goldsboro, NC and Abbeville, Abbeville County, SC (C.N. Horn, pers.comm. 2008).image of plant
EuphorbiaceaeEuphorbia humistrataSpreading SandmatFloodplain forests, exposed river shores, rocky riverside gravel bars, disturbed areas, some of the easternmost occurrences apparently adventive from farther west.OH, IL, MO, and e. KS south to Panhandle FL and e. TX; scattered eastward, apparently as an adventive.image of plant
EuphorbiaceaeEuphorbia hyssopifoliaHyssopleaf SandmatDisturbed ground.SC south to s. FL, west to LA; also in w. TX, s. NM, and Mexico, and south to s. South America.image of plant
EuphorbiaceaeEuphorbia ipecacuanhaeCarolina IpecacLongleaf pine sandhills, other dry, barren sands.CT (formerly), NY (Long Island), NJ, and se. PA (Rhoads & Block 2007) south to ec. GA, on the Coastal Plain.image of plant
EuphorbiaceaeEuphorbia lathyrisCaper Spurge, Myrtle Spurge, Mole PlantRoadsides, disturbed areas.Native of Europe.image of plant
EuphorbiaceaeEuphorbia maculataMilk-purslane, Spotted Spurge, Spotted SandmatGardens, fields, disturbed places, crevices in pavement or sidewalks.QC west to ND, south to s. FL and TX, south into tropical America; introduced in various places worldwide.image of plant
EuphorbiaceaeEuphorbia marginataSnow-on-the-mountainUpland sites (prairies, woodlands) over calcareous substrates; eastwards on roadsides and in disturbed areas.MN and MT south through the Great Plains to MO, TX, NM, and Mexico (CAM, COA, OAX, SLP, SIN, TAB, TAM, VER).image of plant
EuphorbiaceaeEuphorbia mercurialinaCumberland Spurge, Mercury SpurgeRich moist to dry forests over mafic or calcareous rocks.S. KY south through e. TN to nw. GA and n. AL. Apparently introduced in VA. It has been attributed to NC since 1992, but this material does not match E. mercurialina and is treated here as Euphorbia species 5.image of plant
EuphorbiaceaeEuphorbia nutansEyebane, Upright Spotted SpurgeFields, gardens, waste places, disturbed ground.NH west to MI and ND, south to Panhandle FL and TX; south into the Neotropics, and introduced in various places worldwide.image of plant
EuphorbiaceaeEuphorbia obtusataWoodland SpurgeRich bottomland forests.Sc. PA west to IN and IA, south to GA, SC and TX.image of plant
EuphorbiaceaeEuphorbia peplusPetty SpurgeDisturbed areas.Native of Eurasia. Naturalized in Watauga County, NC (Poindexter, pers. comm.).image of plant
EuphorbiaceaeEuphorbia polygonifoliaNorthern Seaside Spurge, Northern SandmatOpen sands of dunes, upper beach, dune blowouts and overwashes, sometimes growing with perennial grasses such as Uniola paniculata, but preferring open sands with little competition, sometimes mixed with the less common E. bombensis.NS to ne. FL along the Atlantic Ocean; disjunct to the Great Lakes.image of plant
EuphorbiaceaeEuphorbia prostrataProstrate SandmatCrevices of pavement or sidewalks, disturbed places.Probably native of tropical America and only naturalized in our area, but possibly native in the southern parts of the Southeastern United States.image of plant
EuphorbiaceaeEuphorbia pubentissimaSoutheastern Flowering SpurgeDry woodlands, sandbars, cobblebars, rock outcrops, longleaf pine sandhills.C. MD, VA, and c. and sw. TN, south to Panhandle FL and s. MS.image of plant
EuphorbiaceaeEuphorbia purpureaGlade Spurge, Darlington Spurge, Purple SpurgeRich moist forests in bottomlands or on slopes, in rich soil around rock outcrops, in swamps or seeps, especially over calcareous rocks (such as dolomite) or mafic rocks (such as amphibolite).NJ, PA, and OH south to w. NC and n. GA.image of plant
EuphorbiaceaeEuphorbia serpensHierba de la Golondrina, Roundleaf SandmatDry sandy hammocks, disturbed uplands.OH, IN, IA, ND, and MT south to TN, LA, TX, NM, AZ, and s. Mexico. Allegedly in se. PA as a waif (Rhoads & Klein 1993).image of plant
EuphorbiaceaeEuphorbia spathulataPrairie Spurge, Warty SpurgeRocky woodlands, prairies, disturbed areas.MN and WA south to w. VA, AL, LA, TX, and n. Mexico (BCN, CHH, COA, DGO, NLE, SON, TAM).image of plant
EuphorbiaceaeEuphorbia vermiculataHairy Spurge, Wormseed SpurgeDisturbed areas.Widespread and common in PA (Rhoads & Klein 1993; Rhoads & Block 2007). Mexico (DGO, GTO, JAL, MIC).image of plant
EuphorbiaceaeEuphorbia davidiiDavid’s SpurgeStreambanks, riverbanks, bottomland forests, bottomland prairies, upland prairies, also in disturbed areas such as ditches, roadsides, and other open, disturbed areas.WI west to WY, south to c. TX, NM, AZ, and south into Mexico, and also introduced more widely.image of plant
EuphorbiaceaeEuphorbia exiguaDwarf SpurgeDisturbed areas.Native of Europe.image of plant
EuphorbiaceaeEuphorbia floridanaFlorida SpurgeLongleaf pine sandhills, Florida scrub.Panhandle FL and sw. GA west to s. AL.image of plant
EuphorbiaceaeEuphorbia glyptospermaRidge-seed Spurge, Ribseed SandmatCalcareous glades, prairies, other sandy or gravelly soils.NL west to BC, south to NY, s. IN, c. TN, MO, TX, and Mexico (CHH, COA, NLE, TAM, ZAC).image of plant
EuphorbiaceaeEuphorbia hexagonaSix-angle SpurgeSand prairies, stream bars, and disturbed sandy areas.W. WI, se. MN, SD, and se. WY south to nw. IL, n. AR, e. TX, and NM.image of plant
EuphorbiaceaeEuphorbia hypericifoliaGraceful SandmatDisturbed upland areas.FL west to TX, south into Mexico, Central America, South America; West Indies. Reported for SC (Kartesz 1999), FL, GA, LA (Q). The boundary between native and adventive distribution is uncertain.image of plant
EuphorbiaceaeEuphorbia inundata var. inundataFlatwood SpurgeWet pine flatwoods, savannas, seepage slopes.Ne. FL and se. GA (Bridges & Orzell 2002); Panhandle FL west to s. MSimage of plant
EuphorbiaceaeEuphorbia ophthalmicaFlorida Hammock SandmatRoadsides, flowerbeds, other disturbed areas, hammocks.GA and PA (Kartesz 1999), widespread in FL (Wunderlin & Hansen), but not in North America (Q). Widespread in Mexico. See Barger et al. (2012) for discussion of AL occurrences.image of plant
EuphorbiaceaeEuphorbia serpillifolia ssp. serpillifoliaThyme-leaf SpurgeDisturbed areas.Native of the Great Plains, MN south to TX and westwards.image of plant
EuphorbiaceaeEuphorbia telephioidesPine flatwoods.Endemic to FL Panhandle (Bay, Franklin, and Gulf counties)
EuphorbiaceaeEuphorbia tetraporaWeak SpurgeSandy soils.AR and OK south to w. LA and TX.image of plant
EuphorbiaceaeEuphorbia gramineaGrassleaf Spurge, ‘Diamond Frost’, ‘Frosted Flakes’Landscaped areas, other disturbed areas.Native of tropical America (n. Mexico south to n. South America). Naturalized in FL Panhandle, FL peninsula, s. AL (Diamond 2014), and s. GA (Zomlefer et al. 2018).image of plant
EuphorbiaceaeEuphorbia platyphyllosBroadleaf SpurgeDunes, sandplains, disturbed areas.Native of Europe. Naturalized in e. TN in Knox County (B.E. Wofford, pers. comm., 2012), and scattered other locations in e. North America.image of plant
EuphorbiaceaeEuphorbia species 1Riverscour.Endemic to riverscour habitats of the Obed River, upper Emory River, Clear Creek, and Daddy's Creek in Morgan and Cumberland Co., TN.
EuphorbiaceaeEuphorbia blodgettiiBlodgett's SandmatDunes, rockland hammocks, longleaf pine sandhills, tidal marshes.Endemic to FL peninsula (from St. Johns and Levy counties, FL south to s. FL).
EuphorbiaceaeEuphorbia mesembryanthemifoliaCoastal Beach SandmatDunes, coastal strands, coastal grasslands, disturbed uplands.FL peninsula (from Flagler County on the east coast and Dixie County on the west coast south to s. FL); Bermuda; West Indies; s. Mexico and Central America.
EuphorbiaceaeEuphorbia albomarginataWhite-margin Sandmat, RattlesnakeweedUsually in poorly-drained clay soils or prairies, roadsides, and fields.OK, se. CO, s. UT, NV, and CA south to TX, NM, AZ, and c. Mexico.
EuphorbiaceaeEuphorbia confertaEverglade Key SandmatPine rocklands, marl prairies, disturbed uplands.Endemic to s. FL (Broward, Miami-Dade, and Monroe counties).
EuphorbiaceaeEuphorbia tithymaloides ssp. smalliiJacob's Ladder, Devil's Backbone, Slipper-spurgeCoastal berms, disturbed areas.S. FL; Cuba (Matanzas).
EuphorbiaceaeEuphorbia deltoidea ssp. serpyllumPine rocklands.Endemic to s. peninsular FL (Big Pine Key only).
EuphorbiaceaeEuphorbia deltoidea ssp. deltoideaDeltoid SpurgePine rocklands.Endemic to s. peninsular FL (s. Miami-Dade County mainland), "from about SW 76 Street south to SW 264 Street, east of Everglades National Park in Miami-Dade County" (Roger Hammer, pers. comm. 2019).image of plant
EuphorbiaceaeEuphorbia deltoidea ssp. adhaerensPine rocklands.Endemic to s. peninsular FL.
EuphorbiaceaeEuphorbia fendleriFendler's SandmatPrairies and dry woodlands.W. SD, WY, NV, and CA south to ec. TX, w. TX, NM, AZ, and n. Mexico (CHH, COA, NLE).
EuphorbiaceaeEuphorbia garberiGarber's SandmatPine rocklands, beach dunes, coastal rock barrens.Endemic to s. FL (Miami-Dade, Collier, and Monroe counties).image of plant
EuphorbiaceaeEuphorbia geyeri var. geyeriGeyer's SandmatSandy areas, sandbars, disturbed uplands.MI west to MT, south to MS, LA, TX, and NM.image of plant
EuphorbiaceaeEuphorbia laredanaLaredo SandmatDunes, open sandy, gravelly, or loamy areas, disturbed areas.S. TX south to ne. Mexico (NLE, TAM).
EuphorbiaceaeEuphorbia lasiocarpaRoadside SandmatDisturbed uplands.Native of the Neotropics and probably only introduced in our area.
EuphorbiaceaeEuphorbia mendeziiMendez's SandmatDisturbed uplands.Native of the Neotropics.
EuphorbiaceaeEuphorbia missuricaPrairie SandmatPrairies, floodplains, fields, other sandy or calcareous dry areas.MN, ND, and MT south to c. AR, TX, and NM.
EuphorbiaceaeEuphorbia pergamenaRockland Spurge, Rockland SandmatPine rocklands.S. peninsular FL (Collier and Miami-Dade counties south through the Monroe County keys); West Indies (Cuba, Hispaniola, Mona Island of Puerto Rico).
EuphorbiaceaeEuphorbia porterianaPorter's SandmatPine rocklands, marl prairies, coastal rock barrens.Endemic to s. FL (Miami-Dade County and on Big Pine Key in Monroe County).image of plant
EuphorbiaceaeEuphorbia thymifoliaGulf SandmatDisturbed uplands.Peninsular FL (where probably adventive); West Indies; Mexico; South America.
EuphorbiaceaeEuphorbia villiferaHairy SandmatDry upland habitats and riparian forests, over limestone.Ec., c., and w. TX south through Mexico and n. Central America (Guatemala).
EuphorbiaceaeEuphorbia bicolorSnow-on-the-prairiePrairies (usually in "tight clay soil"), roadsides, disturbed areas.AR and OK south to w. LA and e. TX.
EuphorbiaceaeEuphorbia helleriHeller's SpurgeIn clay loams and calcareous soils near the coast.S. TX south to ne. Mexico (Coahuila, Nuevo León, Tamaulipas). Apparently introduced in Louisiana (Riina et al. 2016).
EuphorbiaceaeEuphorbia innocuaVelvet SpurgeIn loose sands.Endemic to coastal se. and s. TX.
EuphorbiaceaeEuphorbia inundata var. garrettiiWet pine flatwoods, Florida prairies, and seepage slopes.Var. garrettii Bridges & Orzell is endemic to c. and s. FL peninsula.image of plant
EuphorbiaceaeEuphorbia longicrurisWedge-leaf SpurgeGrasslands, glades, prairies, and woodlands over calcareous to sub-acidic rocks.W. AR and OK south to TX.
EuphorbiaceaeEuphorbia meganaesosFeatherman's SpurgeCoastal prairies and beaches.Sw. LA and se. TX.
EuphorbiaceaeEuphorbia peplidionLow SpurgeDry, sandy or calcareous areas.Se. and sc. TX.
EuphorbiaceaeEuphorbia pinetorumPineland Spurge, Everglades PoinsettiaPine rocklands.Endemic to s. FL.image of plant
EuphorbiaceaeEuphorbia polyphyllaLesser Florida SpurgeLongleaf pine sandhills, Florida scrub, pine flatwoods, pine rocklands.Endemic to the FL peninsula.image of plant
EuphorbiaceaeEuphorbia rosescensScrub SpurgeFlorida scrub.Endemic to c. peninsular FLimage of plant
EuphorbiaceaeEuphorbia trichotomaSand-dune SpurgeDunes, beaches.C. and s. peninsular FL; West Indies (Bahamas, Cuba, Cayman Islands); Mexico (COL, ROO).
EuphorbiaceaeEuphorbia georgianaGeorgia SpurgeGranite outcrops.Endemic to the GA Piedmont (Oglethorpe and Wilkes counties).image of plant
EuphorbiaceaeEuphorbia austrotexana var. austrotexanaSandy plains and dunes.Endemic in s. TX (Atascosa, Bexar, and Wilson counties).
EuphorbiaceaeEuphorbia austrotexana var. carriiSandy soils.Endemic to s. TX (Jim Hogg and Kenedy counties).
EuphorbiaceaeEuphorbia ouachitanaOuachita SpurgeDry to dry-mesic woodlands and forests over shale, sandstone, novaulite, or limestone; bluffs and cliffs on sandstone or shale.Endemic to the Interior Highlands (s. MO to ne. TX), except also disjunct to river bluffs in the Nashville Basin (TN).
EuphorbiaceaeEuphorbia texanaTexas SpurgePrairies.LA and e. TX.
EuphorbiaceaeEuphorbia deltoidea ssp. pinetorumPine rocklands.Endemic to s. peninsular FL.
EuphorbiaceaeEuphorbia miliiCrown-of-thornsEstablished from horticultural use.Native of Madagascar.
EuphorbiaceaeEuphorbia tirucalliPencil TreeDisturbed areas, spread from horticultural use.Native of sub-Saharan Africa.image of plant
EuphorbiaceaeEuphorbia stictosporaSlim-seed SandmatRocky slopes, disturbed areas.W. IA, ND, and e. WY south to e. OK, c. TX, NM, AZ, and s. Mexico.image of plant
EuphorbiaceaeEuphorbia roemerianaRoemer's SpurgeIn rich, calcareous soils, especially in creek bottoms.Mainly Edwards Plateau, c. TX, but extending southeastwards into the TX Coastal Plain.
EuphorbiaceaeEuphorbia angustaBlackfoot Euphorbia, Blackfoot Sandmat, Narrowleaf SpurgeRocky limestone areas.Endemic to c. to w. TX, mainly Edwards Plateau.
EuphorbiaceaeEuphorbia lataHoary SandmatDry calcareous areas.Sw. KS and s. CO south to c. TX, w. TX, NM, and n. Mexico (CHH, COA).
EuphorbiaceaeEuphorbia lucidaLeafy SpurgeDry fields.Native of Europe. Excluded from Maryland based upon lack of voucher (Knapp and Naczi 2021).image of plant
EuphorbiaceaeEuphorbia tithymaloides ssp. tithymaloidesPlanted and perhaps persistent.Native of tropical America. TAM and GRO south through Mexico and Central America to n. South America.
EuphorbiaceaeEuphorbia hammeriHammer's SpurgeOpen understory, fire-dependent, and seasonally saturated habitats dominated by Pinus densa.Endemic to s. FL.image of plant
EuphorbiaceaeEuphorbia ogdeniiBroom SandmatPine rockland, coastal rock barrens, and canopy gaps or edges of rockland hammocks.Endemic to s. FL.
EuphorbiaceaeEuphorbia epithymoidesCushion SpurgeFrom horticultural use.Native of Mediterranean Europe.image of plant
EuphorbiaceaeEuphorbia herniariifoliaWaif on ore piles.Native of Mediterranean se. Europe and w. Asia.image of plant
EuphorbiaceaeEuphorbia paraliasSea SpurgeBallast waif.Native of Mediterranean Europe, n. Africa, and w. Asia.image of plant
EuphorbiaceaeEuphorbia trigonaAfrican-MilktreeWaif from horticultural use.Native of w. and c. Africa.
EuphorbiaceaeEuphorbia vellerifloraCaliche SandmatLive oak scrub, disturbed areas.S. TX south to s. Mexico.
EuphorbiaceaeEuphorbia apocynifoliaCalcareous forests.S. SC south to Panhandle FL, west to s. MS.image of plant
EuphorbiaceaeEuphorbia species 5Mafic forests and woodlands.Sc. NC and nc. SC.
EuphorbiaceaeEuphorbia oblongataEggleaf Spurge, Balkan SpurgeRoadbanks, disturbed areas.Native of Balkan Europe. Urban areas from AL and GA (?) north to Long Island and CT (?). Apparently well naturalized and documented in the w. US; more distribution work is needed in the e. US. At present, perhaps only an intermittent and often-overlooked species naturalizing in urban and garden-adjacent areas.image of plant
EuphorbiaceaeEuphorbia segetalisGrainfield SpurgeDisturbed areas, apparently a waif that did not establish.Native of Europe. Ballast waif of Philadelphia area in PA and adjacent NJ.

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