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|1 Culm angles smooth below the inflorescence; rhizomes slender, 0.6-1.8 mm thick, shoots often arising 2-several in a cluster and many nodes without shoots|
|1 Culm angles at least slightly scabrous below inflorescence; rhizomes coarse, 1.8-3 mm thick, typically with long unbranched segments from which shoots arise singly every few nodes.|
..2 Beak of the perigynium 1/5 to 1/3 as long as the body; spikes 2-7 (-10); [alien, naturalized primarily in brackish to salty coastal habitats]
|..2 Beak of the perigynium 1/3 to 1/2 as long as the body; spikes 5-15; [alien, naturalized primarily inland along highways treated with salt]|