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1 Upper stem with bladeless sheaths; inflorescence a single spikelet, not subtended by leaf-like bracts; plants cespitose, a dense tussock with many culms
....3 Blade of the uppermost leaf on the stem 1-4 cm long, much shorter than its sheath; stems glabrous throughout
....3 Blade of the uppermost leaf on the stem 3-25 cm long, as long as the sheath or longer; stems scabrous near the inflorescence
......4 Scales (subtending the flowers) prominently 3-7-nerved, reddish-brown near the margins; spikelets in a dense cluster; perianth bristles initially white (with usually some tan coloration), becoming tawny; [rather widespread in our area]
......4 Scales (subtending the flowers) 1-nerved, greenish-black; spikelets solitary at ends of inflorescence branches; perianth bristles white; [NJ northwards]