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Key to Dichanthelium, Key E: Spikelets 2.1-3.2 mm long, larger culm blades < 13 mm wide, culm nodes not bearded,
the lowermost sometimes puberulent or sparsely pilose

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1 Ligule < 1.5 mm long.
  2 Leaf blades, at least the lower, cordate or subcordate at the base, 4-25 mm wide.
    3 Culm blades 4-12 mm wide; spikelets obpyriform when viewed dorsally, strongly plano-convex when viewed laterally, usually markedly reddish-purple basally; fertile lemma papillose
    3 Culm blades 5-25 mm wide; spikelets elliptic to elliptic-obovoid when viewed dorsally or laterally, greenish to faintly purple-tinged basally; fertile lemma not papillose.
      4 Ligule ciliate, 0.2-0.8 mm long; culm blades 5-14 mm wide; spikelets 1.8-2.6 mm long; first glumes 0.5-1 mm long
      4 Ligule an eciliate membrane 0-0.3 mm long; culm blades 5-25 cm wide; spikelets 2.0-3.7 mm long; first glumes 0.5-2.6 mm long.
        5 Internodes crisp-puberulent; larger culm blades 4-8 (-11) cm long, 5-10 (-12) mm wide, broadest near the base; spikelets 2.1-2.7 mm long; first glumes 0.7-0.9 mm long
        5 Internodes glabrous to sparsely pubescent, larger culm blades 5-18 cm long, 5-25 mm wide, broadest near the middle or broadly linear; spikelets 2.0-3.7 mm long; first glumes 0.5-2.6 mm long.
          6 Cauline blades 5-18 cm long, 6-14 mm wide, averaging about 10 × as long as wide, the margins nearly parallel; spikelets 2.9-3.7 mm long; first glumes 11-26 mm long, 2/5 or more as long as the spikelets
          6 Cauline blades 7-12 cm long, (6-) 12-25 mm wide, ovate-lanceolate, averaging about 6 × as long as wide, the margins curved most of their length; spikelets 2.0-3.2 mm long; first glumes 5-10 mm long, about 1/4 as long as spikelets.
             7 Culms erect; blades more nearly symmetrical; spikelets 2.0-3.2 mm long; sterile lemma apex usually blunt to rounded
             7 Culms basally decumbent; blades strongly asymmetrical-falcate; spikelets 3.0-3.2 mm long; sterile lemma apex usually pointed
  2 Leaf blades tapering to the base, 2-12 mm wide.
               8 Ligule a stramineous to light brown membrane, with or without terminal cilia.
                 9 Ligule a ciliate membrane; spikelets (2.6) 2.8-3.4 (3.6) mm long; first glume (0.9) 1.1-1.6 mm long
                 9 Ligule an eciliate membrane; spikelets 1.6-2.8 (3.0) mm long; first glume 0.3-1.1 mm long.
                   10 Panicle rachis smooth, pellucid-punctate; first glume 0.3-0.6 (-0.8 ) mm long, as broad as or broader than long, truncate to obtuse; larger leaves 10-25 cm long, 8-15 mm wide; ligule 0.5-1.3 mm long; lowest elongate culm internode > 2 mm in diameter; lowest nodes usually glabrous or pubescent
                   10 Panicle rachis scabrous or smooth, not pellucid-punctate; first glume 0.5-1.1 mm long, longer than wide, rounded to acute; larger leaves 3.5-12 cm long, 3-9 mm wide; ligule 0.1-0.6 mm long; lowest elongate culm internode < 2 mm in diameter; lowest nodes retrorsely bearded or glabrous.
                     11 Lowest nodes usually retrorsely bearded; ligules (0.1-) 0.3-0.6 mm long; largest vernal blades 7-12 cm long, (4.5-) 6-9 mm wide; panicle peduncle scabrous; spikelets ovate-lanceolate, acute, 2.0-2.4 mm long; first glume lanceolate, blunt to acute; fertile lemma smooth
                     11 Lowest nodes usually glabrous; ligules 0.1-0.2 (-0.3) mm long; largest vernal blades 3.5-7 cm long, 3-6 mm wide; panicle peduncle smooth; spikelets elliptic, blunt to acute, 1.6-2.2 mm long; first glume ovate to rotund, rounded to acute; fertile lemma papillose
               8 Ligule of short white hairs or absent.
                       12 Leaves basally disposed, usually matted or cushion-forming, larger than the mid and upper culm leaves; blade margins uniformly papillose-ciliate; culms branching only at the base, 0.5-3.5 dm tall; internodes glabrous or sparsely pubescent
                       12 Basal leaves usually rosette-forming, not matted or cushion-forming, usually much smaller than culm leaves; blade margins glabrous, or ciliate only below the middle (or sometimes papillose-ciliate throughout in D. portoricense ssp. patulum, which has densely puberulent internodes); culms branching at the nodes in age, 1.5-7.5 dm tall.
                          13 Blades progressively longer upwards on culm, the larger 9-20 cm long and 3-8 mm wide, (15-) 20 × or more as long as wide, firm but not stiff, not longitudinally grooved or wrinkled; blade adaxial surface (weakly-) strongly scabrous; sheaths glabrous; second glume and sterile lemma exceeding fertile lemma
                          13 Blades similar or more often decreasing in size upwards on culm, the larger 3-16 cm long and 2-25 mm wide; if 15 × or more as long as wide, then blades stiff and longitudinally grooved or wrinkled (sect. Angustifolia); blade adaxial surface smooth to moderately scabrous; sheaths glabrous or pilose; second glume and sterile lemma shorter than to exceeding fertile lemma.
                            14 Blades of mid-culm leaves typically long and stiff, acuminate, linear or narrowly lanceolate, usually > 10× as long as wide, only 2-6 mm wide when < 8 cm long.
                              15 Vegetative parts glabrous (spikelets pubescent, lowest internodes and sheaths sometimes sparsely pubescent, blades and sheaths sometimes ciliate); mature panicles less than ¼ as wide as long, the branches erect-ascending, the spikelets often subsecund; autumnal blades 4-10 cm long, involute, < 2 mm wide; spikelets 1.8-2.2 mm long.
                                16 Larger vernal blades 5-8 cm long and 3-5 mm wide; vernal panicles usually less than ¼ as wide as long, spikelets often subsecund along the strongly ascending to erect branches; spikelets 1.8-2.2 mm long, second glume and sterile lemma pubescent, summits blunt, about equaling fertile lemma; [of coastal wetlands and Piedmont prairies from NC and AR south to the Caribbean and Central America]
                                16 Larger vernal blades 5-9 cm long and 2-3 mm wide; vernal panicles usually ¼ to ½ as wide as long, the branches ascending; spikelets 2.3-3.0 mm long, second glume and sterile lemma sparsely pubescent to glabrous, summits pointed to blunt, exceeding fertile lemma; [of c. and s. FL]
                              15 Vegetative parts pubescent, at least in the lower portion of plant; mature panicles usually more than half as wide as long, the branches spreading-ascending, the spikelets not noticeably subsecund; autumnal blades 1-6 cm long, involute and < 2 mm wide in D. aciculare and D. arenicoloides, or to 9 cm long, flat and 2-4 mm wide in D. angustifolium (autumnal blade dimensions not yet known for D. wilcoxianum); spikelets 1.5-3.2 mm long.
                                  17 Culms 15-35 cm long; all culm leaf blades long-hirsute on both surfaces, their sheaths densely papillose-hirsute; leaf blades of the primary branches often exceeding the immature vernal panicles
                                  17 Culms 15-75 cm long; culm leaf blades glabrous to sparsely pubescent, or the lower softly villous abaxially in D. arenicoloides; lower sheaths usually villous, mid-culm and upper sheaths glabrous (though often ciliate basally); leaf blades of primary branches not exceeding immature vernal panicles.
                                    18 Spikelets (3.0-) 3.2-3.8 mm long, fusiform, pointed at summit, attenuate at base, with both glumes attached 0.3-0.5 mm below sterile lemma, the autumnal spikelets 3.5-3.8 mm long; larger vernal leaf blades 3-6 mm wide, the lower and mid-culm leaf blades of similar width; autumnal leaf blades involute
                                    18 Spikelets 1.8-3.1 mm long, obovate, blunt, and the base not attenuate (except in D. arenicoloides with autumnal spikelets 2.3-3.1 mm long); larger vernal leaf blades 2-8 mm wide, the lower usually wider and often shorter than mid-culm leaf blades; autumnal leaf blades involute or flat.
                                       19 Longest vernal blades to 16 cm, widest vernal leaf blades 4-8 mm, usually longitudinally wrinkled; vernal and autumnal spikelets 2.3-3.1 mm long; autumnal leaf blades flat, the larger to 9 cm by 2-4 mm
                                       19 Longest vernal leaf blades to 6 cm (D. aciculare ) or 12 cm (D. arenicoloides) long, 2-5 mm wide, not noticeably wrinkled; vernal spikelets 1.5-2.8 mm long, autumnal spikelets either 1.5-2.3 (D. aciculare) or 2.3-3.1 (D. arenicoloides); autumnal leaf blades involute, the larger to 6 cm by 1.5 mm.
image of plant
Show caption*© Scott Ward
                                         20 Longest vernal leaf blades to 12 cm, widest vernal leaf blades 3-4 (-5) mm; vernal spikelets 2.1-2.8 mm long; autumnal spikelets 2.3-3.1 mm long, pointed, attenuate, the glumes attached 0.3-0.5 mm below sterile lemma; first glumes 0.7-1.5 mm long; larger autumnal leaf blades to 6 cm by 1.5 mm
image of plant
Show caption*© Janet Wright, some rights reserved (CC BY-NC), uploaded by Janet Wright
                                         20 Longest vernal leaf blades to 6 (-8) cm, widest vernal leaf blades 2-5 mm; vernal and autumnal spikelets 1.7-2.3 mm long, blunt, not attenuate, the glumes attached < 0.2 mm below sterile lemma; first glumes 0.6-0.9 mm long; larger autumnal leaf blades to 3 cm by 1 mm
                            14 Blades of mid-culm leaves lanceolate, thin or firm but not stiff, usually < 10× as long as wide, usually 7 mm or more wide when as much as 8 cm long.
                                           21 Spikelet bases strongly attenuate, apices blunt to beaked; first glume (2/5-) ½-2/3 (-4/5) as long as spikelet, attached 0.3-0.5 (-0.7) mm below expansion of second glume and sterile lemma
                                           21 Spikelet bases not noticeably attenuate, apices rounded to acute; first glume < ½ as long as spikelet, attached < 0.3 mm below expansion of second glume and sterile lemma.
                                             22 Spikelets 2.9-3.8 mm long, broadly elliptic, rounded at the summit, with broad and thick nerves
                                             22 Spikelets 2.1-2.9 mm long, elliptic or obovate, rounded or pointed at the summit, the nerves often raised, but not broad and thick.
                                                    25 Lowest internodes usually purple-villous; nodes retrorsely (-spreading) bearded; spikelets 1.8-2.2 mm long, moderately densely pubescent; first glume broadly ovate, subacute, 0.4-0.7 mm long, usually < 1.5 × as long as wide; second glume about as long as sterile and fertile lemmas; fertile lemma 1.7-1.8 mm long
                                                    25 Lowest internodes glabrous or pubescent or spreading villous, usually not purplish; nodes glabrous, sparsely pubescent to sparsely bearded; spikelets 2.2-2.8 (-3.0) mm long, sparsely pubescent; first glume 0.7-1.1 mm long, usually > 1.5 × as long as wide; second glume shorter than sterile and fertile lemmas; fertile lemma 2.1-2.2 mm long
                                                      26 Spikelets strongly plano-convex when viewed laterally, obpyriform when viewed dorsally, (2.1-) 2.2-2.6 mm long; fertile lemma and palea papillose or smooth; first glume usually broadened above base, rounded or broadly tapered distally; glume bases often reddish-purple.
                                                      26 Spikelets biconvex to elliptic when viewed laterally, variously shaped but not obpyriform when viewed dorsally; fertile lemma and palea smooth or reticulate (or papillose in D. lucidum with weak and sprawling culms and spikelets 1.7-2.3 mm long); first glume usually tapered from near base to apex; glume bases various
                                                          28 Spikelets strongly plano-convex when viewed laterally, obpyriform when viewed dorsally, broadly rounded, usually markedly reddish-purple basally.
                                                            29 Fertile lemma and palea smooth (minutely reticulate but not papillose); spikelets (1.8) 1.9-2.2 (-2.5) mm long; lower culm blades 2-8 mm wide, glabrous, glabrate, or puberulent (especially abaxially)

Key to Dichanthelium, Key G: Spikelets 0.8-2.0 mm long, lower culm internodes glabrous

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1 Ligule 1-5 mm long.
  2 Ligule (1.5-) 2-5 mm long; sheaths glabrous to variously pubescent; internodes glabrous or pubescent; nodes glabrous, or bearded with ascending, spreading, or tangled hairs; leaves 3-10 cm long, 3-10 mm wide; spikelets 0.8-1.9 mm long
  2 Ligule 1-2 mm long; sheaths sparsely to moderately spreading short-pilose; internodes glabrous; nodes retrorsely bearded; leaves 1-4 cm long, 2-5 mm wide; spikelets 1.2-1.4 mm long
1 Ligule < 1 mm long.
    3 Basal leaves rosette-forming, usually much smaller than the culm leaves, not matted or cushion-forming; culms branching at the mid and upper nodes in age.
      4 Blades of mid-culm leaves typically long and acuminate, linear or narrowly lanceolate, usually 10-20× as long as wide, only 2-5 mm wide when < 8 cm long.
        5 Vernal leaf blades 9-20 cm long, the larger usually 5-8 mm wide, becoming longer upwards on the culm, (weakly-) strongly scabrous on the adaxial surface; spikelets sparsely pubescent to glabrous
        5 Vernal leaf blades to 11(14) cm long, those on the upper culm smaller or similar in size to those below, the adaxial surface not scabrous except sometimes on the margins (or scabrous in D. neuranthum with leaves no more than 5 mm wide and spikelets moderately glandular papillose-pubescent).
          6 Spikelets (glandular-) papillose-pubescent; blades 1-3 (-5) mm wide; first glume 0.8-1.0 mm long; culms to 4 dm tall
          6 Spikelets glabrous; blades 3-8 mm wide; first glume 0.3-1.1 mm long; culms to 10 dm tall.
             7 Leaves 3-8 mm wide; panicle (8-) 20-40 mm wide; first glume 0.6-1.1 mm long, blunt to acute
             7 Leaves 3-5.5 mm wide; panicle 2-5 mm wide; first glume 0.3-0.4 mm long, truncate to obtuse
      4 Blades of mid-culm leaves lanceolate, mostly 10× or less as long as wide, usually 7 mm or more wide when as much as 8 cm long.
               8 Spikelets elliptic, oblong, or obovate; lower culm blades 3-12 (-15) mm wide, thin, tapered to the base; plants often freely branching in age, becoming top-heavy with a mass of fascicled, reduced leafy branches and inflorescences
               8 Spikelets broadly elliptic to suborbicular; lower culm blades 6-30 mm wide, broad and cordate to subcordate at the base; plants sparingly branched in age, not becoming top-heavy with fascicled, reduced leafy branches and inflorescences.
                 9 Leaf blades not noticeably thick; ligules ciliate, to 0.8 mm long; spikelets 1.8-2.6 mm long, elliptic, obtuse to subacute; first glumes 0.5-1.0 mm long
                 9 Leaf blades thickish; ligule obsolete or with cilia < 0.8 mm long; spikelets 0.9-1.9 mm long, obovoid to spherical, rounded; first glumes 0.2-0.8 mm long.
                   10 Spikelets 0.9-1.2 mm long; longer blades 6-8 cm long, erect to erect-ascending
                   10 Spikelets 1.2-1.9 mm long; longer blades 8-20 cm long, ascending or the uppermost erect.
                     11 Mid-culm blades to 25 cm long, 14-30 mm wide, the uppermost 10-15+ cm long; vernal panicles to 20 cm long, often less than half as wide as long; spikelets 1.3-1.6 (-1.7)
                     11 Mid-culm blades to 10 cm long, 5-11 (-14) mm wide, the uppermost 3-9 cm long; vernal panicles to 14 cm long, usually more than half as wide as long; spikelets (1.4-) 1.5-1.8 mm long
    3 Basal leaves similar to or larger than the mid and upper culm leaves, often matted or cushion-forming; culms branching at the base (also at mid and upper nodes in D. chamaelonche vars. and D. dichotomum var. glabrifolium).
                       12 Longer blades > 6 cm; if only 6 cm, then sheaths retrorsely long-pilose (D. laxiflorum).
                            14 Longer blades 6-18 cm long by 7-12 mm wide; sheaths conspicuously retrorsely long-pilose; nodes bearded with retrorse or spreading hairs; spikelets (1.4-) 1.9-2.3 (-2.5) mm long
                            14 Longer blades 10-35 cm long by 2-6 mm wide; sheaths glabrous to variously pilose, but not conspicuously retrorsely long-pilose; nodes variously pubescent to glabrate; spikelets 1.7-2.3 (-2.8) mm long.
                              15 Fresh plants light green to blue-green; leaf sheaths usually pilose; ligule of largest culm leaves 3-6× as wide as long; culm blades to 35 cm long, usually pilose on the upper surface
                              15 Fresh plants darker green; leaf sheaths usually glabrous; ligule of largest culm leaves usually > 6× as wide as long; culm blades to 15 cm long, usually glabrate to glabrous on the upper surface
                       12 Longer blades 1.5-6 cm; sheaths glabrous or pubescent, but not retrorsely long-pilose.
                                16 Blades 1-3 mm wide, glabrous, eciliate or basally ciliate; spikelets 0.9-1.4 mm long.
                                  17 Spikelets pubescent, 1.2-1.4 mm long; blades involute, often falcate, 2.5-6 cm long; [endemic to c. and s. FL scrub]
                                  17 Spikelets glabrous, 0.9-1.2 mm long; blades flat, not falcate, 1.5-4 (-5) cm long; [wet sites, VA s. to FL, w. to e. LA]
                                16 Blades 3-8 mm wide; spikelets 1.1-2.1 mm long (if < 1.5 mm, then blades either pubescent on one or both surfaces or ciliate to the apex).
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