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Key to Dichanthelium, Key B: Spikelets 3.3-5.2 mm long

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1 Nodes (at least the lower) densely bearded with retrorse hairs; spikelets 3.3-5.2 mm long; ligule ciliate, the membranous base minute or obsolete.
  2 Ligule 2.5-4 mm long; lower internodes pubescent with long ascending or spreading hairs; cauline blades 8-15 cm long, 10-25 mm wide; first glume 1.8-2.5 mm long
  2 Ligule 0.3-1.3 mm long; lower internodes glabrous or pubescent with ascending hairs; cauline blades 5-15 cm long, either 1-13 or 12-40 mm wide; first glume 1.2-2.2 mm long.
    3 Basal as well as cauline blades linear, 1-4 mm wide, > 30× as long as wide; spikelets 2.8-3.8 (-4.5) mm long
    3 Cauline blades narrowly lanceolate to broadly ovate-lanceolate, 4-40 mm wide, < 20× as long as wide; spikelets 3.3-5.2 mm long.
      4 Blades 12-40 mm wide, broadly ovate-lanceolate, basally cordate; spikelets 3.8-5.2 mm long, 1.7-2.2 mm wide; first glume narrowly triangular; second glume shorter than fertile lemma
      4 Blades 4-14 mm wide, narrowly lanceolate to lanceolate, basally narrowed, rounded, or subcordate; spikelets 3.3-4.5 mm long, 1.2-1.9 mm wide; first glume broadly ovate to triangular; second glume 0.0-0.5 mm longer than fertile lemma.
        5 Lowest elongate internode puberulent to glabrous; lower culm sheaths shorter than internodes, upper culm sheaths longer; blades lanceolate, about 10× as long as wide; blade bases narrowly rounded to subcordate; spikelets 3.3-4.0 mm long, blunt to acute; first glume broadly ovate; second glume equaling or exceeding fertile lemma by 0.2 mm
        5 Lowest elongate internode moderately to densely papillose-pubescent with spreading to ascending hairs; all culm sheaths shorter than internodes; blades narrowly lanceolate, about 15× as long as wide; blade bases narrowed; spikelets 3.5-4.5 mm long, beaked; first glume triangular to ovate; second glume exceeding fertile lemma by 0.2-0.5 mm
1 Nodes glabrous, pubescent, or sparsely pilose; spikelets (2.4-) 3.3-4.2 mm long; ligules membranous, ciliate, or both.
          6 Ligule 1.6-3 mm long; blades 4-9 mm wide, > 10× as long as wide
          6 Ligule 0.2-1.5 mm long; if larger blades < 9 mm wide and mostly 15× or more as long, then ligule 0.5-1 mm long.
             7 Larger blades 2-6 (-8) mm wide, 10-15× or more as long as wide (if shorter, then culms arising from hard corm-like bases and culms with 8-14 leaves); spikelets basally attenuate.
               8 Culm bases not corm-like; blades usually 15× or more as long as wide, their bases narrowed; vernal panicle usually matures before development of primary branches; upper glume and sterile lemma exceeding fertile lemma, beak-like
               8 Culm bases hard, corm-like; blades usually 10-15× as long as wide, their bases rounded to truncate; primary branches usually develop before maturation of vernal panicle; upper glume about 0.3 mm shorter than fertile lemma, sterile lemma about equaling fertile lemma.
                 9 Cauline leaves 8-14; blades thick, puberulent, parallel-sided proximally; ligule of cilia only; vernal panicles 3-13 × 2-8 cm; pedicels ± appressed; lower glumes deltoid, bases fully encircling pedicel
                 9 Cauline leaves 4-7; blades thin, glabrous to sparsely hirsute, widening proximally; ligule a ciliate membrane; vernal panicles 3-6 × 2-4 cm; pedicels ± divergent; lower glumes narrowly triangular, bases partially encircling pedicel
             7 Larger blades 6-35 mm wide, mostly 10× or less as long as wide; spikelet bases rounded to narrowed.
                   10 Spikelets strongly papillose-hispid with spreading hairs 0.5-1 mm long; blades papillose-hispid
                   10 Spikelets glabrous to pubescent with hairs < 0.5 mm long; blades glabrous, scabrous, or pubescent.
                     11 Spikelet apex rounded to sub-acute; second glume and sterile lemma equaling or shorter than fertile lemma.
                       12 Ligules 1-1.5 mm long; blades 5-10 cm long by 6-15 mm wide, glabrous or pubescent, basally rounded; spikelets glabrous to pubescent
                       12 Ligules 0.3-1 mm long; blades 7-35 cm long by 8-35 mm wide, glabrous or scabrous, basally cordate or rounded; spikelets pubescent to glabrate.
                          13 Sheaths (at least lower) papillose-hispid with spreading hairs; ligule 0.5-1.2 mm long, an eciliate membrane; culm blades 10-28 cm long; spikelets 2.4-3.6 mm long; first glume 1.2-1.8 mm long
                          13 Sheaths glabrous or pubescent (the upper papillose-pubescent in D. xanthophysum); ligules 0-0.7 mm long, ciliate if more than 0.3 mm long; culm blades 5-18 cm long; spikelets 2.2-4.1 mm long; first glume 0.7-2.6 mm long.
                            14 Upper sheaths glabrous to softly villous basally; ligules 0.4-0.7 mm long, a short-ciliate membrane; culm blades 15-40 mm wide, the bases cordate-clasping; panicle usually more than half as wide as long
                            14 Upper sheaths glabrous, puberulent, or papillose-pubescent; ligules 0-0.5 mm long, eciliate or ciliate; culm blades 5-25 mm wide, the bases cordate-clasping or rounded; panicles less or more than half as wide as long.
                              15 Upper sheaths glabrous or puberulent; ligules 0-0.3 mm long, eciliate; culm blades cordate-clasping; panicles usually more than half as wide as long; spikelets 3.3-3.7 mm long, ellipsoid, apex obtuse to pointed
                              15 Upper sheaths papillose-pubescent; ligules 0.3-0.5 mm long, ciliate; culm blade bases rounded; panicles usually less than half as wide as long; spikelets 3.2-4.1 mm long, obovoid, blunt

Key to Dichanthelium, Key C: Spikelets 2.1-3.2 mm long, larger leaves 13-25 mm wide

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1 Culm nodes, at least the lower, bearded (often retrorsely).
  2 Nodes with a viscid band below the beard; internodes and sheaths velvety-pubescent; vernal culm blades 9-20 cm long, 9-20 mm wide
  2 Nodes without a viscid band below the beard; internodes and sheaths glabrous, the lower sometimes sparsely hairy; vernal culm blades 3.5-14 cm long, 7-15 mm wide
1 Culm nodes glabrous or pubescent, but not bearded.
    3 Second glume and sterile lemma acute to short-acuminate, some in a given specimen 0.3 mm or more longer than fertile lemma.
      4 Ligule an eciliate membrane; peduncle scabrous; first glume 0.3-0.6 (-0.8) mm long, reniform to suborbicular
      4 Ligule a ciliate membrane or entirely ciliate; peduncle smooth; first glume 0.7-1.6 mm long, broadly ovate to lanceolate.
        5 Ligule a ciliate membrane; larger leaves 10-20 cm long; spikelets pubescent, (2.6-) 2.8-3.4 (-3.6) mm long; first glume (0.9-) 1.0-1.6 mm long
        5 Ligule entirely ciliate; larger leaves 9-14 cm long; spikelets glabrous, 2.1-2.6 mm long; first glume 0.7-1.2 mm long
    3 Second glume and sterile lemma blunt to subacute, shorter than, equaling, or barely exceeding fertile lemma, never by as much as 0.3 mm.
          6 Ligule ciliate, 0.2-1.1 (-2.1) mm long; leaf blades 5-14 cm by 5-17 mm; second glume 0-0.3 mm shorter than fertile lemma.
             7 Culms 30-75 cm long; lower sheaths glabrous to sparsely papillose-pilose; panicle pulvini glabrous to sparsely pilose; spikelets 1.8-2.6 mm long; first glume narrowly triangular (triangular-ovate); second glume 0-0.1 mm shorter than fertile lemma
             7 Culms 60-150 cm long; lower sheaths papillose-pilose; panicle pulvini pubescent; spikelets 2.2-2.8 (-3.0) mm long; first glume broadly ovate; second glume 0.05-0.3 mm shorter than fertile lemma
          6 Ligule a ciliate or eciliate membrane (0-) 0.3-0.9 mm long; leaf blades 5-28 cm by 5-40 mm; second glume 0-0.1 mm shorter than fertile lemma.
               8 Lower sheaths papillose-hispid with spreading hairs; ligule a membrane 0.4-0.9 mm long; leaf blades 10-28 cm long
               8 Lower sheaths glabrous, puberulent, or softly villous basally; ligule either a membrane 0-0.3 mm long or a ciliate membrane 0.4-0.7 mm long; leaf blades 5-18 cm long.
                 9 Ligule a ciliate membrane 0.4-0.7 mm long; leaves 15-40 mm wide; spikelets 1.6-2.0 mm wide
                 9 Ligule a membrane 0-0.3 mm long; leaves 5-25 mm wide; spikelets 1.1-1.3 mm wide
                   10 Cauline blades 5-18 cm long, 6-14 mm wide, averaging about 10 × as long as wide, the margins nearly parallel; spikelets 2.9-3.7 mm long; first glumes 1.1-2.6 mm long, 2/5 or more as long as the spikelets
                   10 Cauline blades 7-12 cm long, (6-) 12-25 mm wide, ovate-lanceolate, averaging about 6 × as long as wide, the margins curved most of their length; spikelets 2.0-3.2 mm long; first glumes 0.5-1.0 mm long, about 1/4 as long as spikelets.
                     11 Culms erect; blades more nearly symmetrical; spikelets 2.0-3.2 mm long; sterile lemma apex usually blunt to rounded
                     11 Culms basally decumbent; blades strongly asymmetrical-falcate; spikelets 3.0-3.2 mm long; sterile lemma apex usually pointed
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