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|1 Cones 3.5-8 cm long; [native, also planted]; [section Balsameae].|
|..2 Bracts of the mature cones shorter than the scales or slightly exserted beyond the scales; stomatal rows (4-) 7 (-8) on each side of the midvein on the lower leaf surface (visible at 10× or greater magnification); [plant of the Central Appalachians and north, native from Page and Madison counties, VA, northward]|
..2 Bracts of the mature cones longer than the scales and reflexed; stomatal rows (8-) 10 (-12) on each side of the midvein on the lower leaf surface (visible at 10× or greater magnification); [plant of the Southern Appalachians, native from Grayson and Smyth counties, VA, southward]
|1 Cones 10-15 cm long; [alien, persistent from horticultural use and sparingly naturalized].|
|....3 Juvenile-form leaves of young plants with rounded-retuse apices; leaf resin canals 2, marginal; cone bracts exserted and reflexed with elongate apical cusps; [section Abies]|
|....3 Juvenile-form leaves of young plants with spinose-bifid apices; leaf resin canals 2, median (and usually with up to 2 additional marginal canals); cone bracts exserted and erect with abrupt, short apical cusps; [section Momi]|