Flora of the Southeastern United States
2022 Edition

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Key to Nuphar

1 Sepals 5 (or 5-6 in N. rubrodisca); stigmatic disc red; fruit deeply constricted below the stigmatic disc; leaf blades 3.5-25 cm long; [section Nuphar].
..2 Anthers 1-3 mm long; stigmatic disc with 6-10 deep crenations; stigmatic rays terminating 0-0.2 mm from the margin of the disc; constriction below disc 1.5-5 mm in diameter; leaf sinus 2/3 or more the length of the midrib; leaf blades 3.5-10 (-13) cm long
..2 Anthers (2-) 3-6 mm long; stigmatic disc with 8-15 shallow crenations; stigmatic rays terminating 0-1.6 mm from the margin of the disc; constriction below disc 5-10 mm in diameter; leaf sinus ca. 1/2 the length of the midrib; leaf blades 5-25 cm long
1 Sepals 6-9 (-12); stigmatic disc yellow, green, or sometimes reddish; fruit slightly or not at all constricted below the stigmatic disc; leaf blades 7-50 cm long; [section Astylus].
....3 Floating leaf blades 2-6× as long as wide, the sinus < ¼ as long as the midrib; thin-textured submersed leaves often more abundant than the floating leaves; [of blackwater or tidal streams, rivers, and lakes of the Coastal Plain, se. VA, e. NC, e. SC, Panhandle FL, s. AL].
......4 Floating leaf blades 3-6× as long as wide; stigmatic rays elliptic, terminating < 1 mm from the edge of the disk; [of blackwater or tidal streams, rivers, and lakes of the Coastal Plain of se. VA to e. SC]
......4 Floating leaf blades 2-3× as long as wide; stigmatic rays linear, mostly terminating 1-2 mm from the edge of the disk; [of blackwater streams and rivers, Panhandle FL, s. AL, and s. MS]
....3 Floating leaf blades 1-2× as long as wide, the sinus > ¼ as long as the midrib; thin-textured submersed leaves absent or at least fewer than floating or emersed leaves; [collectively of various habitats and distributions, but not as above].
........5 Leaf petiole flattened on the upper (adaxial) surface and winged along the margins; fruit usually purplish; sepals red or maroon at the base adaxially
........5 Leaf petiole terete or slightly flattened, not winged; fruit usually greenish or yellowish; sepals yellow or red at the base adaxially.
..........6 Lower leaf surface densely silvery-pubescent; leaves 20-45 cm wide, ca. 1× as long as wide, the lobes broadly rounded; leaves mostly floating; [of AL, FL, and GA Coastal Plain]
..........6 Lower leaf surface glabrous to sparsely pubescent; leaves 7-30 cm wide, (1-) 1.5 (-2)× as long as wide, the lobes acute to broadly rounded; leaves mostly emersed; [widespread in our area]
............ 7 Sepals green to yellow adaxially, flowers 2–4.5 cm wide; fruit green (rarely reddened), up to 5.5 cm in length; exposed leaf blades up to 39 cm in length; [widespread in our area]
............ 7 Sepals red to purple adaxially, flowers 1.8–3.0 cm wide; fruit reddened, up to 2.5 cm in length; exposed leaf blades up to 21 cm in length; [Interior Highlands]