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1 Fruits broadly winged; winter buds (sub-) sessile, covered by multiple, imbricate, unequal scales; [subgenus Alnobetula]
....3 Fruiting catkins drooping; leaves broadest at or below the middle, pale green to glaucous beneath, doubly serrate, the teeth of various sizes, usually some of them coarse; bark dark reddish-brown, shiny, with prominent light-colored lenticels
....3 Fruiting catkins erect; leaves broadest at or above the middle, green beneath, finely serrate, the teeth approximately equal in size; bark light gray or brown, with inconspicuous lenticels
......4 Flowering spring; plant a tree; leaves broadly rounded to slightly notched (emarginate) at the tip; [alien, uncommonly planted and sometimes persistent in our area, especially northwards]; [subgenus Alnus]
........5 Leaf blades ovate, elliptic, or narrowly elliptic (rarely obovate), > 2.1× as long as wide; leaf apex acute (to sometimes acuminate), never obtuse; fruiting strobili > 1.5× as long as wide; large shrub or small tree with broad rounded crown, as wide as or slightly wider than tall; [s. OK]
..........6 Fruiting strobili (14-) 14.5-19 (-24) mm long, < 1.3× as long as wide; large shrub or tree 5.5-9.5 m tall, with a narrow crown; [nw. GA]
..........6 Fruiting strobili (15.2-) 18.5-22 (-25) mm long, > 1.3× as long as wide; medium to large shrub 3.5-6 (-7.5) m tall, with a narrow to broad crown; [s. DE and e. MD]