Flora of the Southeastern United States
2022 Edition

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Key to Euphorbia, Key A: subgenus Chamaesyce, section Anisophyllum, subsection Hypericifoliae {add to Key A: E. blodgettii, E. hypericifolia, E. mesembrianthemifolia, E. ophthalmica, E. serpyllifolia var. serpyllifolia}

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1 Young stems and leaves glabrous; leaves either entire or serrulate, at least at the apex (use 10× magnification).
..2 Leaves serrulate, at least at the apex (use 10× magnification); seeds with 2-4 transverse ridges.
....3 Seeds 1.0-1.3 mm long, with 3-4 transverse ridges
....3 Seeds 0.8-1.0 mm long, with 2-3 (-4) transverse ridges
..2 Leaves absolutely entire; seeds smooth.
......4 Stipules united into a triangular scale-like structure (this often lobed or fringed), thus appearing as 2 stipules at each node
......4 Stipules separate, lacerate, appearing as 4 stipules at each node.
........5 Mature seeds 1.0-1.2 (-1.4) mm long, angled; leaves either 1.5-2× or 4-5× as long as wide, not fleshy; [inland sandhills or coastal dunes].
..........6 Leaves 1.5-2× as long as wide, green throughout; [more widespread]
..........6 Leaves 4-5× as long as wide, the leaf margin red; [FL]
........5 Mature seeds (1.3-) 1.5-2.6 mm long, rounded; leaves 2-3 (-5)× as long as wide, often somewhat fleshy; [of barrier island dunes and other sandy coastal habitats].
............7 Mature seeds (1.3-) 1.5-1.9 mm long; cyathia terminal on the stems and also axillary
............7 Mature seeds (2.0-) 2.2-2.6 mm long; cyathia terminal on the stems
1 Young stems and leaves pubescent (at least in lines along the stems); leaves serrulate, at least at the apex (use 10× magnification).
..............8 Ovary and capsule glabrous.
................9 Seeds 0.8-1.0 mm long, light gray, the faces with 2-3 (-4) horizontal, low, blunt ridges, sometimes connected by 1-2 cross ridges; stems glabrous when young (uncommonly puberulent along 1 side of the branchlets); capsule 1.5-2.0 mm long
................9 Seeds 1.0-1.3 mm long, dark gray, faces without ridges, though irregularly and finely wrinkled; stems puberulent when young on 1 side only; capsule 2.0-2.5 mm long.
..................10 Stems ascending or suberect, puberulent when young
..................10 Stems prostrate or widely spreading, spreading-hirsute
..............8 Ovary and capsule pubescent.
....................11 Stems with 2 types of trichomes, the longer 3-5 mm long; cyathia in axillary and terminal cymes, at least some of the peduncles > 10 mm long
....................11 Stems with 1 type of trichome, these < 2 mm long; cyathia solitary or several in axils, the peduncles < 5 mm long.
......................12 Capsules spreading-villous, especially or solely on the angles; styles 0.2-0.3 mm long, bifid nearly to the base; seeds sharply quadrangular-angled, the faces with 3-4 transverse ridges
......................12 Capsules minutely appressed-puberulent, on the entire surface (though sometimes primarily on the lower portion); styles 0.3-0.7 mm long, bifid only in the upper half or third; seeds quadrangular but not angled, the faces with inconspicuous transverse ridges or nearly smooth.
........................13 Involucre cleft on 1 side half its length; leaves mostly obovate, 1.5-2× as long as wide; styles 0.5-0.7 mm long, filiform; seed faces nearly smooth; adventitious roots formed at middle nodes along the stem
........................13 Involucre cleft on 1 side a fourth to a third its length; leaves mostly oblong, 2-3× as long as wide; styles 0.3-0.4 mm long, clavate; seed faces transversely ridged; adventitious roots not formed