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Key to Phyllanthus

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1 Plant a floating aquatic; [subgenus Phyllanthus; section Loxopodium]
1 Plant a rooted terrestrial.
..2 Plants woody, shrubs or trees, 10-100 dm tall.
....3 Ultimate branchlets terete; leaves on ultimate branchlets well-developed, falling with the branchlet; fruits drupes; tree to 10 m tall
....3 Ultimate branchlets flattened into cladodes; leaves on ultimate branchlets scale-like, caducous; fruits capsules; shrub to 3 m tall; [subgenus Xylophylla; section Xylophylla]
..2 Plants perennial or annual herbs, or woody (suffrutescent) at the base only, 0.5-5 dm tall.
......4 Plant with “normal” arrangement of branches and leaves (leaves uniformly distributed on the stem and branches, alternate and either distichous or spirally arranged, the ultimate branches not deciduous, flowers produced on ultimate and penultimate orders of branches).
........5 Leaves arranged spirally; staminate sepals 0.7-2.5 mm long; stipules not auriculate; [section Paraphyllanthus].
........5 Leaves arranged distichously; staminate sepals 0.5-0.7 mm long; stipules typically auriculate; [subgenus Phyllanthus; section Loxopodium].
..........6 Stems flattened and winged; filaments connate; seeds 1.3-1.5 mm long; [of e. LA westward]
..........6 Stems terete; filaments free; seeds 0.7-1.1 mm long; [widespread in our region].
............ 7 Pistillate sepals 0.2-0.3 mm wide; leaf venation clearly visible on the lower surface; stems glabrous; cymules with 1 staminate and (1-) 2-3 (-5) pistillate flowers; pistillate nectary cupular, unlobed, enclosing the ovary 1/3-1/2 of its length; [widespread in our region]
............ 7 Pistillate sepals (0.2-) 0.3-0.5 (-0.7) mm wide; leaf venation obscure on the lower surface; stems scabridulous; cymules with 1-2 staminate and 1-2 pistillate flowers; pistillate nectary annular, unlobed or 6-lobed, enclosing the ovary only basally; [s. FL]
......4 Plant with “phyllanthoid” arrangement of branches, leaves, and flowers (leaves lacking on the main stem, the penultimate order of branches with scales arranged spirally, the ultimate order of branches deciduous, bearing normal leaves alternately and distichously, flowers produced only on the ultimate, deciduous branches), the ultimate branches and their distichous small leaves resembling the rachis and leaflets of a once-pinnate compound leaf.
............ ..8 Stamens 5, filaments free; fruiting pedicels capillary, 3-7 mm long, flexuous and pendent in fruit; seeds densely papillose; [subgenus Kirganelia]
............ ..8 Stamens 3, filaments connate into a column 0.1-0.15 mm long; fruiting pedicels thicker and often also shorter, spreading in fruit; seeds variously ribbed or striate.
............ ....9 Fruiting pedicels 0.5 mm long; seeds with 12-15 transverse ridges and sometimes 1-3 pits; male flowers borne toward the tip of the branchlets, female flowers toward the base; [section Urinaria]
............ ....9 Fruiting pedicels > 0.5 mm long; seeds either longitudinally ribbed or striate, or verrucose; female flowers borne toward the tip of the branchlets, male flowers toward the base; [section Phyllanthus].
............ ......10 Pistillate sepals (0.5-) 0.7-1.5 mm long, 1-veined or obscurely veined; staminate sepals 0.3-1 mm long; seeds longitudinally ribbed, 0.8-1.5 mm long; capsules 1.7-2.7 mm in diameter; pistillate nectary of 3 glands or annular and 5-9-lobed
............ ......10 Pistillate sepals 3-3.5 mm long, pinnately veined; staminate sepals 1.5-3 mm long; seeds verrucose, 1.5-1.8 mm long; capsules 3.5 mm in diameter; pistillate nectary annular, unlobed; [subgenus Phyllanthus; section Phyllanthus]
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