Flora of the Southeastern United States
2022 Edition

Colors

Data mode

Key to Viola, Key A: Caulescent violets with yellow or white flowers, and entire or erose stipules

1 Corolla white with a yellow center, ventral surface of petals pink- or violet-tinged, dorsal surface of aging flowers fading to pink or violet; stipules long-triangular, attenuate
1 Corolla yellow, ventral surface of petals often brown-tinged; stipules ovate to narrowly ovate.
..2 Leaf blades deeply 3-5-lobed
..2 Leaf blades unlobed.
....3 Leaves as broad as long or broader than long.
......4 Stems mostly 2 to several, decumbent proximally in flower, becoming erect in fruit; basal leaves (1) 2–5; cauline leaves distributed over much of stem length, ovate, cordate at base, acute to abruptly short-acuminate at apex; foliage glabrous or thinly pubescent on upper stem and leaves; upper surface of leaf blades medium green; [widespread in our region]
......4 Stems 1 (2), erect in flower; basal leaves 0 (-2); cauline leaves clustered in uppermost 1/4 of stem length, broadly ovate to reniform, subcordate to broadly cuneate at base, broadly obtuse to rounded at apex; foliage densely pubescent throughout; upper surface of leaf blades gray-green; [montane in our region]
....3 Leaves distinctly longer than broad.
........5 Leaf blades hastate, base subcordate to cordate; upper surface of leaf blades in life usually (but not always) variegated, with the main surface gray-green or silvery and the veins a contrasting darker green
........5 Leaf blades narrowly ovate or lance-triangular to rhombic-lanceolate, base cuneate to broadly rounded or truncate; leaf blade surfaces uniformly green.
..........6 Leaf blades narrowly ovate, broadest well above the base, base broadly rounded to cuneate; apical half of blade with conspicuous marginal teeth; stem and leaves sparsely to moderately hirtellous with easily visible hairs; [north of GA and SC]
..........6 Leaf blades lance-triangular to rhombic-lanceolate, broadest just above the base, base broadly cuneate to truncate; apical half of blade subentire; stem and leaves minutely puberulent, hairs requiring magnification to see clearly; [mostly south of TN and NC]