Flora of the Southeastern United States
2022 Edition

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Key to Geranium

1 Perennial, from a stout rhizome; [subgenus Geranium].
..2 Cymules 1-flowered (rarely a few cymules 2-flowered); pedicels with eglandular hairs only.
....3 Petals 15-22 mm long; fruit 28-42 mm long
....3 Petals 4-6 mm long; fruit 14-20 mm long
..2 Cymules 2-flowered; pedicels with a mixture of glandular and eglandular hairs (except with eglandular hairs only in G. maculatum).
......4 Pedicels with eglandular hairs only; petals 11-16 mm long; [native, common in much of our area (and also sometimes cultivated)]
......4 Pedicels with a mixture of glandular and eglandular hairs; petals either 6-9 or 12-29 mm long; [alien, rare and in disturbed situations].
........5 Fruit 30-37 mm long; petals 12-24 mm long
........5 Fruit 14-27 mm long; petals either 6-9 mm long or 15-29 mm long.
..........6 Petals 15-29 mm long; mericarp callus absent; fruits 15-27 mm long
..........6 Petals 6-9 mm long; mericarp callus present; fruits 14-20 mm long
1 Annual, from a taproot.
............ 7 Leaves compound, at least the terminal segment (and often also the two lateral segments) petiolulate, not connected to the lateral segments by leaf tissue; petals 9-14 mm long; [rare in our area, mainly northward]; [subgenus Robertium, section Ruberta]
............ 7 Leaves dissected, but not compound, all segments interconnected by leaf tissue; petals 2-10 mm long; [collectively common and widespread in our area].
............ ..8 Sepals blunt or acute, or terminating in a minute callus tip (mucro) < 0.3 mm long; [subgenus Robertium, section Batrachioidea].
............ ....9 Mericarps appressed pubescent across the surface, not ridged; stem pubescence of short (< 0.3 mm long), gland-tipped and eglandular hairs; stamens partly sterile (the inner 5 fertile, the outer 5 lacking anthers)
............ ....9 Mericarps glabrous across the surface (slightly to densely ciliate at the base), either reticulately ridged or not; stem pubescence an admixture of long eglandular hairs (1.0-1.7 mm long) and short (< 0.5 mm long) gland-tipped and eglandular hairs; stamens (all 10) fertile (note that anthers may fall readily).
............ ......10 Mericarps not reticulately ridged
............ ......10 Mericarps reticulately ridged
............ ..8 Sepals awned or subulate, the subulate awn 0.7-3 mm long.
............ ........11 Mature pedicels < 1.5× as long as the calyx.
............ ..........12 Mericarps with spreading hairs about 0.5 mm long, these often gland-tipped; [subgenus Geranium, section Dissecta]
............ ..........12 Mericarps with long appressed hairs about 1 mm long, these not gland-tipped; [subgenus Geranium, section Geranium]
............ ........11 Mature pedicels > 2× as long as the calyx; [subgenus Geranium, section Geranium].
............ ............ 13 Pedicels retrorsely strigose