Flora of the Southeastern United States
2022 Edition

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Key to Toxicodendron

Click the number at the start of a key lead to highlight both that lead and its corresponding lead. Click again to show only the two highlighted leads. Click a third time to return to the full key with the selected leads still highlighted.

1 Leaflets 7-13, entire; small tree
1 Leaflets 3, toothed, lobed, or entire; shrub or vine.
..2 Fruits pubescent or papillose; leaflets entire, coarsely toothed, undulate, or round-lobed; lower surfaces of leaflets either velvety puberulent, sometimes becoming glabrate in age (T. pubescens) or glabrous (glabrescent or rarely pilose beneath) but with prominent tufts of tannish hairs present in the vein axils (T. radicans var. radicans).
....3 Leaves sparsely pubescent (rarely pilose beneath), the apex and the lobes (if present) generally acute to acuminate; drupes papillose, scabrous or puberulent; plant a high-climbing vine or stoloniferous shrub; [of mesic, swampy, or dry habitats]
....3 Leaves velvety puberulent (sometimes becoming glabrate in age), the apex and the lobes (if present) generally obtuse to broadly acute; drupes pubescent (becoming glabrate); plant a stoloniferous shrub; [of dry habitats, especially sandhills]
..2 Fruits glabrous (or very sparsely pubescent); leaflets coarsely toothed or notched (rarely entire); lower surfaces of leaflets glabrous to pubescent, but without tufts of tannish hairs in the vein axils.
......4 Leaflets deeply and sharply lobed or cut (the sinuses and the lobes V-shaped); [OK and TX]
......4 Leaflets entire, undulate, to serrate; [collectively widespread].
........5 Leaves densely pilose and velvety on the lower surface; leaves pubescent on the upper surface; pubescence of the leaves erect
........5 Leaves glabrous to sparsely strigose on the lower surface; leaves glabrous on the upper surface; pubescence of the leaves appressed.
..........6 Leaflets suborbicular or broadly ovate, nearly as wide as long; petiole glabrous (rarely glabrescent); plant a shrub, the stems upright, entirely lacking aerial roots, not vining; fruits (3-) 4-7 mm in diameter
..........6 Leaflets ovate to lanceolate; petiole puberulent to densely pubescent; plant a shrub or vine, the stems upright or twining; fruits 2.5-5.5 mm in diameter