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Key to Anacardiaceae

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1 Leaves simple
..2 Leaves oblong-lanceolate, > 4× as long as wide; leaf apices acuminate
..2 Leaves suborbicular, 1-1.5× as long as wide; leaf apices broadly rounded
1 Leaves compound.
....3 Leaves 3-foliolate.
......4 Terminal leaflet sessile; fruit red, glandular-pubescent; foliage and stems lacking contact poisons
......4 Terminal leaflet distinctly petiolulate; fruit white or greenish, glabrous or with scattered trichomes; foliage and stems containing contact poisons
....3 Leaves pinnately compound, with (3-) 5-41 leaflets (at least the larger and better-developed on a plant with 5 or more leaflets).
........5 Leaf rachis winged (with a flange of leaf tissue, often irregular in width and terminating at each leaflet attachment).
..........6 Fruits glandular-pubescent; stamens 5; inflorescence a terminal panicle, the central axis upright as a continuation of the stem
..........6 Fruits glabrous; stamens 10; inflorescence of axillary panicles, the central axis angled from the main stem
............ 7 Inflorescence either a terminal panicle (the central axis stiff and upright) or of axillary or terminal clusters of short spikes
............ 7 Inflorescence of axillary or cauliflorous panicles, the central axis lax and often dangling.
............ ..8 Leaves all or mostly even-pinnate (sometimes some leaves with an apparently terminal or obliquely subterminal leaflet)
............ ....9 Leaflets 19-41 per leaf, 2-5 cm long, 0.4-1 cm wide, averaging 5× as long as wide; leaflet margins often strongly serrate (to entire); [rare non-native in FL peninsula and s. TX]
............ ....9 Leaflets 3-25 per leaf, 2.5-20 cm long, 1.5-8 cm wide, averaging 1.2-3× as long as wide; leaflet margins entire or shallowly crenate.
............ ......10 Leaflet margin with obvious marginal vein; fruits 25-40 mm long; [rare non-native in s. FL]
............ ......10 Leaflet margin lacking marginal vein (though sometimes thickened and translucent); fruits 4-20 mm long; [collectively widespread].
............ ........11 Upper surface of leaflets dull, matte; inflorescences from the trunk (cauliflorous) or axillary; fruits 2-3 mm long; foliage and stems lacking contact poisons; [rare non-native in s. FL]
............ ........11 Upper surface of leaflets shiny, as if lacquered; inflorescences axillary near the summit of the stem; fruits 4-14 mm long; foliage and stems containing contact poisons.
............ ..........12 Leaves 3-5 (-7)-foliolate; leaflet base rounded, subcordate, or cordate; leaflets 1.2-1.7× as long as wide; fruits orange or brown; [FL, Martin County southwards]
............ ..........12 Leaves 7-13 (-15)-foliolate; leaflet base cuneate to rounded; leaflets 2-2.5× as long as wide; fruits white or yellowish; [widespread (though irregular) in our region, in FL south to Highlands County]

Key to Toxicodendron

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1 Leaflets 7-13, entire; small tree
1 Leaflets 3, toothed, lobed, or entire; shrub or vine.
..2 Fruits pubescent or papillose; leaflets entire, coarsely toothed, undulate, or round-lobed; lower surfaces of leaflets either velvety puberulent, sometimes becoming glabrate in age (T. pubescens) or glabrous (glabrescent or rarely pilose beneath) but with prominent tufts of tannish hairs present in the vein axils (T. radicans var. radicans).
....3 Leaves sparsely pubescent (rarely pilose beneath), the apex and the lobes (if present) generally acute to acuminate; drupes papillose, scabrous or puberulent; plant a high-climbing vine or stoloniferous shrub; [of mesic, swampy, or dry habitats]
....3 Leaves velvety puberulent (sometimes becoming glabrate in age), the apex and the lobes (if present) generally obtuse to broadly acute; drupes pubescent (becoming glabrate); plant a stoloniferous shrub; [of dry habitats, especially sandhills]
..2 Fruits glabrous (or very sparsely pubescent); leaflets coarsely toothed or notched (rarely entire); lower surfaces of leaflets glabrous to pubescent, but without tufts of tannish hairs in the vein axils.
......4 Leaflets deeply and sharply lobed or cut (the sinuses and the lobes V-shaped); [OK and TX]
......4 Leaflets entire, undulate, to serrate; [collectively widespread].
........5 Leaves densely pilose and velvety on the lower surface; leaves pubescent on the upper surface; pubescence of the leaves erect
........5 Leaves glabrous to sparsely strigose on the lower surface; leaves glabrous on the upper surface; pubescence of the leaves appressed.
..........6 Leaflets suborbicular or broadly ovate, nearly as wide as long; petiole glabrous (rarely glabrescent); plant a shrub, the stems upright, entirely lacking aerial roots, not vining; fruits (3-) 4-7 mm in diameter
..........6 Leaflets ovate to lanceolate; petiole puberulent to densely pubescent; plant a shrub or vine, the stems upright or twining; fruits 2.5-5.5 mm in diameter
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