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Keyed in multiple places:

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Key to Geocarpon

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1 Flowers sessile, axillary; plants to 4 cm tall; petals absent; sepals fused into a cuplike hypanthium
1 Flowers either (1-) 5-50+ in terminal corymbose cymes, or if solitary and axillary on pedicels 10-40 mm long; petals present or (in Sabulina fontinalis) absent; sepals separate.
..2 Flowers solitary in leaf axils; petals absent; [calcareous seepage, KY, TN, n. AL]
..2 Flowers (1-) 5-50+ in terminal corymbose cymes; petals present.
....3 Sepals acute to acuminate at the tip; sepal venation prominently 3- or 5-veined, or (in Geocarpon nuttallii) obscure.
......4 Plants perennial from woody crowns; leaves rigid, with axillary fascicles; pedicels glabrous
......4 Plants either annual or perennial from slender wintering stems; leaves flexuous, lacking axillary fascicles; pedicels sparsely to densely stipitate-glandular.
........5 Stems prostrate or decumbent, leafy throughout; [of moist habitats]
........5 Stems erect, leafy mostly near the base, the stem leaves few in number and reduced in size upward; [of moist to dry upland habitats].
..........6 Sepals 3-nerved; leaves narrowly lanceolate to narrowly oblanceolate, (0.6-) 1.5-3.2 mm wide; seeds 0.7-0.9 mm long, the surface appearing pebbled or with short papillae, black
..........6 Sepals 5-nerved or 5-ribbed; leaves narrowly olinear to linear, 0.5-1.5 (-1.8) mm wide; seeds 0.5-0.7 mm long, the surface tuberculate, reddish brown to black
....3 Sepals obtuse or rounded at the tip; sepal venation obscure.
............ 7 Leaves rigid, closely imbricated, with axillary fascicles of leaves; pedicels densely stipitate-glandular; plants perennial from a very long and deep, woody taproot; [xeric sands; Coastal Plain NY to FL Panhandle]
............ 7 Leaves flexuous, not imbricated, lacking axillary fascicles of leaves; pedicels either glabrous or (in Geocarpon nuttallii) stipitate-glandular; plants either annual or perennial from a basal mat of offshoots, taproots filiform; [thin soils over rock outcrops; inland provinces].
............ ..8 Pedicels stipitate-glandular; [west of the Mississippi River in AR, LA, OK, and TX]
............ ..8 Pedicels glabrous; [east of the Mississippi River].
............ ....9 Leaves oblanceolate, 1-3 mm wide, very thin in texture and prominently though minutely veined; flowers in cymes of mostly 1-3 flowers; [shaded Cumberland Plateau rockhouses of s. KY and n. TN]
............ ....9 Leaves linear, mostly < 1 mm wide, thicker in texture, then veins not readily apparent; flowers in cymes of mostly 3-25+ flowers; [collectively of sunny thin-soil-over-rock habitats of the Piedmont and Appalachians].
............ ......10 Seeds 0.4-0.6 mm long, suborbicular, lacking an adaxial groove; petals oblanceolate, not clawed
............ ......10 Seeds 0.5-0.8 mm long, obliquely triangular, with an adaxial groove; petals clawed, broadly obovate.
............ ........11 Plants annual, 10-20 cm tall; cymes mostly 9-15-flowered; sepals 3-4 mm long; petals 4-6 (-8) mm long; [of Piedmont and low mountain granitic flatrocks and other outcrops]
............ ........11 Plants perennial from a basal mat of offshoots, 5-10 (-15) cm tall; cymes mostly 3-7-flowered; sepals 3.5-5.5 mm long; petals 6-10 mm long; [of mountain peaks and Piedmont monadnocks]

Key to Sabulina

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1 Flowers solitary in leaf axils; petals absent; [calcareous seepage, KY, TN, n. AL]
1 Flowers (1-) 5-50+ in terminal corymbose cymes; petals present.
..2 Stems prostrate or decumbent, leafy throughout; [of moist habitats]
..2 Stems erect, leafy mostly near the base, the stem leaves few in number and reduced in size upward; [of moist to dry upland habitats].
....3 Seed surface pebbled-papillose; mature leaves narrowly lanceolate or oblanceolate, 1.5-3 mm wide; sepal nerves 3
....3 Seed surface tuberculate with low ridges, resembling a brain; mature leaves linear, < 1.5 mm wide; sepal nerves 3 or 5.
......4 Plants perennial from woody crowns; leaves rigid, with axillary fascicles; stem and inflorescence axes strictly glabrous; sepal nerves 3
......4 Plants either annual or perennial from slender wintering stems; leaves flexuous, lacking axillary fascicles; stem and inflorescence variously stipitate-glandular to glabrous, sepal nerves 3 or 5.
........5 Sepal nerves 3 (occasionally weakly 5), widely spaced, not appearing ribbed; inflorescences divaricately-branching at maturity, forming a diffuse tangled mound in robust specimens; seeds 0.8-0.9 mm across; flowering time centered May through June
........5 Sepal nerves 5, typically closely spaced and appearing elevated and ribbed (widely spaced in some specimens); inflorescences ascending to spreading at maturity; seeds 0.5-0.7 (-0.75) mm across; flowering time centered April through May
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