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Key to Rhododendron

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1 Leaves evergreen, coriaceous, entire; [rhododendrons and Labrador-tea].
..2 Leaves densely hairy beneath; petals separate
..2 Leaves either glabrous beneath or punctate with brown scales; petals fused.
....3 Lower surface of leaves not punctate with brown scales; larger leaves 10-30 cm long; [subgenus Hymenanthes, section Ponticum, subsection Pontica].
......4 Leaves rounded at base (rarely broadly cuneate or slightly cordate), obtuse at apex; leaf generally 1.5-2.5× as long as wide; corolla usually deep pink to purple; sepals 0.5-1 mm long
......4 Leaves cuneate at base, acute at apex; leaf generally 3-5× as long as wide; corolla usually white to pale pink; sepals 4-6 mm long
....3 Lower surface of leaves punctate with brown scales; larger leaves 6-12 cm long; [subgenus Rhododendron, section Rhododendron, subsection Caroliniana].
........5 Narrow part of the corolla tube ca. 0-2 mm long; peak flowering simultaneous with peak flowering of Kalmia latifolia; [restricted to the Great Smoky Mountains, TN and NC]
........5 Narrow part of the corolla tube > 4 mm long; main flowering before to simultaneous with Kalmia latifolia; [FL, AL, GA, TN, SC, and NC].
..........6 Leaf apices mostly obtuse to rounded; leaves mostly 4.5-6.0 cm long, 1.7-2.4 cm wide, in the sun clearly revolute; petioles 2-6 (-7) mm long; branches erect and rigid; seeds moderately to elaborately ornamented with flared protrusions at both ends; [n. FL]
..........6 Leaf apices mostly acute to acuminate; leaves mostly 6-11 cm long, 2.0-4.0 cm wide, flat or only slightly revolute; petioles (5-) 6-20 mm long; branches spreading, not notably erect and rigid; seeds somewhat ornamented at one end; [c. GA northward].
............ 7 Corolla mostly 15-20 mm long, the corolla tube (9-13 mm long) shorter than to as long as the corolla lobes (12-18 mm long); plant flowering early relative to R. minus, despite often occurring at higher elevations and more northern latitudes, the main flowering in early spring, long before Kalmia latifolia; leaf growth starting with or after flowering; seeds ovoid, < 1.0 mm long, < 2.5× as long as wide (reminiscent of tiny watermelon seeds), coarsely textured, unornamented at the ends; calyx lobes deltoid; [mountain ridges, heath balds, and rocky summits, mostly either away from the Blue Ridge Escarpment or north of the Asheville Basin]
............ 7 Corolla mostly 25-37 mm long, the corolla tube (13-22 mm long) longer than the corolla lobes (8-12 mm long); plant flowering late relative to R. carolinianum, the main flowering in late spring, together with Kalmia latifolia; leaf growth before flowering (and in southern parts of the range also after flowering); seeds usually > 1.0 mm long, usually > 3× as long as wide, ornamented at one or both ends; calyx lobes ovate; [Coastal Plain, Piedmont, and Mountains, in the Mountains mostly of the Blue Ridge Escarpment of sw. NC and nw. SC, ranging up to the higher granitic domes in Macon and Jackson counties, NC].
1 Leaves deciduous, membranaceous, ciliate or serrulate; [azaleas, minniebush, and rhodora].
............ ..8 Corolla urceolate, the corolla lobes ca. 1 mm long; stamens 8; capsule 4-7 mm long, 4 (-5) locular; leaf mucro extremely prominent; midrib on lower leaf surface with a series of fascicles of glandular trichomes; [subgenus Azaleastrum, section Sciadorhodion]
............ ..8 Corolla tubular at the base, with well-developed flaring corolla lobes > 10 mm long (at least the lower); stamens either 5-7 or 10; capsule 7-25 mm long, 5-locular; leaf mucro not prominent; midrib on lower leaf surface variously pubescent, but not with a series of fascicles of glandular trichomes.
............ ....9 Corolla tube 2-5 mm long or absent, much shorter than the corolla lobes; stamens (5-) 7 or 10; capsule ellipsoid-ovoid, 7-14 mm long; [subgenus Azaleastrum, section Sciadorhodion].
............ ......10 Corolla tube absent; stamens 10; leaves elliptic to obovate, < 3 cm wide, acute to rounded at the apex, the margin revolute; [PA and NJ northwards]
............ ......10 Corolla tube 2-5 mm long, much shorter than the corolla lobes; stamens (5-) 7; leaves elliptic, often broadly so (commonly 3-6 cm wide), acuminate, often with purplish coloration, the margin plane; [endemic in the s. Blue Ridge]
............ ....9 Corolla tube 13-25 mm long, equal to or longer than the corolla lobes; stamens 5; capsule cylindroid-ellipsoid, 10-25 mm long; [subgenus Hymenanthes, section Pentanthera].
............ ........11 Outer (abaxial) surface of the vegetative bud scales densely pubescent; flowers appearing before or with the leaves (at least some of the leaves still folded or the vegetative bud scales still present) (except R. viscosum).
............ ..........12 Capsule cylindroid, (3-) 4-5× as long as broad.
............ ............ 13 Corolla yellow-orange to orange-red; upper corolla lobe with a contrasting blotch; [s. GA west to se. MS]
............ ............ 13 Corolla white to pink; upper corolla lobe uniform in color (lacking a contrasting blotch); [collectively widespread in our area].
............ ............ ..14 Corolla tube narrow and somewhat abruptly expanding into the lobes, the lobes distinctly shorter than the tube; pedicels usually eglandular (occasionally glandular), (4-) 5-10 (-13) mm long; leaves inconspicuously ciliate, the cilia appressed to the leaf margin; capsule densely covered with nonglandular hairs; flowering Mar-May; [widely distributed from s. NC and n. TN southward]
............ ............ ..14 Corolla tube broader, gradually expanding into the lobes, the lobes about as long as or longer than the tube; pedicels usually glandular, (7-) 10-16 (-26) mm long; leaves conspicuously ciliate, the cilia diverging from the leaf margin; capsule glabrous or sparsely pubescent, the hairs at least partly gland-tipped; flowering May-Jun; [Mountains and upper Piedmont from n. NC (and rarely ne. AL) northward]
............ ..........12 Capsule ovoid, 2-3 (-4)× as long as broad (if capsules absent, try both leads).
............ ............ ....15 Corolla yellow-orange to orange-red; upper corolla lobe with a contrasting blotch; hairs of the capsule not gland-tipped; [Piedmont and Coastal Plain of GA and w. SC]
............ ............ ....15 Corolla white to pink; upper corolla lobe uniform in color (lacking a contrasting blotch); hairs of the capsule gland-tipped (at least in part; nonglandular hairs also present); [collectively widespread in our area].
............ ............ ......16 Flowers appearing after the leaves have expanded (essentially all of the leaves unfolded, and the vegetative bud scales absent), typically May (Coastal Plain, low elevation, or south) to Aug (mountains, high elevation, or north)
............ ............ ........17 Shrubs to 7 m tall; floral winter bud scales 15-20, at least the inner acute and aristate; corolla tube glabrous within, > 2× as long as the lobes; [primarily Coastal Plain]
............ ............ ........17 Shrubs 1-2 (-5) m tall; floral winter bud scales 8-12 (-15), rounded (-mucronate) apically; corolla tube pubescent within, < 2× as long as the lobes; [more widespread]
............ ............ ......16 Flowers appearing before or with the leaves (at least some of the leaves still folded or the vegetative bud scales still present), typically Apr-May (unless stimulated by fire or weather).
............ ............ ..........18 Leaf blade (3.2-) 3.4-4.7 (-5.2) cm long, (0.8-) 1.1-1.9 (-2.0) cm wide; plant typically strongly rhizomatous; [Coastal Plain from s. NJ south to sc. GA]
............ ............ ..........18 Leaf blade (3.9-) 5.0-7.3 (-8.7) cm long, (1.2-) 1.8-3.0 (-3.7) cm wide; plant typically nonrhizomatous; [Mountains and upper Piedmont]
............ ........11 Outer (abaxial) surface of the vegetative bud scales glabrous or sparsely pubescent; flowers appearing before, with, or after the leaves.
............ ............ ............ 19 Capsule cylindric, (3-) 4-5 × as long as broad; flowers appearing before or with the leaves (at least some of the leaves still folded or the vegetative bud scales still present).
............ ............ ............ ..20 Corolla white, with a contrasting yellowish blotch on the upper lobe; [se. TN and w. GA westward]
............ ............ ............ ..20 Corolla deep pink (rarely white or nearly so), lacking a contrasting blotch on the upper lobe; [widespread in our area]
............ ............ ............ 19 Capsule ovate, 2-3.5× as long as broad; flowers appearing before, with, or after the leaves.
............ ............ ............ ....21 Corolla white to pink (sometimes with yellow blotches).
............ ............ ............ ......22 Sepals 1.5-5 mm long; [primarily Appalachian: ne. PA and se. KY south to sc. NC, w. SC, c. GA, and c. AL]
............ ............ ............ ......22 Sepals 0.1-1 mm long; [collectively widespread].
............ ............ ............ ........23 Leaves glabrous beneath, except for strigose bristles along the midrib and major veins; [collectively widespread].
............ ............ ............ ..........24 Shrubs to 7 m tall; floral winter bud scales 15-20, at least the inner acute and aristate; corolla tube glabrous within, > 2× as long as the lobes; [primarily Coastal Plain]
............ ............ ............ ..........24 Shrubs 1-2 (-5) m tall; floral winter bud scales 8-12 (-15), rounded (-mucronate) apically; corolla tube pubescent within, < 2× as long as the lobes; [more widespread]
............ ............ ............ ....21 Corolla predominantly yellow, orange, or orange-red.
............ ............ ............ ............ 25 Flowers appearing before or with the leaves.
............ ............ ............ ............ ..26 Floral bud-scales with glandular margins, the outer surface glabrous; corolla tube glandular-pubescent on its outer surface; sepals 2.0-3.0 mm long
............ ............ ............ ............ ..26 Floral bud-scales with ciliate margins, the outer surface glabrous to sparsely pubescent; corolla tube pubescent (not glandular or rarely very weakly so) on the outer surface; sepals 0.5-3.0 mm long
............ ............ ............ ............ 25 Flowers appearing after the leaves have expanded.
............ ............ ............ ............ ....27 Twigs pubescent with multicellular hairs; [e. KY and w. VA south to ec. TN, n. GA, and ne. AL; apparently disjunct in the Piedmont of SC]
............ ............ ............ ............ ......28 Shrubs upright, not stoloniferous; pedicel usually glandular-pubescent; corolla tube relatively wide, usually glandular-pubescent, yellow to orange or red; flower bud scales yellow-green (rarely with a brownish tinge)
............ ............ ............ ............ ......28 Shrubs slightly to strongly stoloniferous; pedicel rarely glandular-pubescent; corolla tube relatively narrow, usually not glandular-pubescent, deep orange to red; flower bud scales brownish or at least brown-margined

Key G6: trees with alternate, simple, unlobed, entire leaves

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1 Leaves evergreen. {add to 1a: [Conocarpus] COMBRETACEAE; [Maytenus] CELASTRACEAE}
..2 Leaves tiny, scale-like, broadest at the base and more or less clasping the stem, < 10 mm long and < 1 mm wide
..2 Leaves larger and broader, > 40 mm long and > 8 mm wide.
....3 Fruit a hesperidium; petiole flanged or winged for most of its length, constricted at the base of the blade (except linear in C. medica)
....3 Fruit various (but not a hesperidium); petiole linear (not flanged or winged with leafy tissue).
......4 Leaves pubescent with stellate hairs or peltate scales (sometimes hairs simple), or glandular punctate, appearing as translucent dots (best seen on lower leaf surfaces, with at least 10x magnification).
........5 Leaves (fresh) strongly odorous, glandular-punctate (appearing as translucent dots), with strongly parallel venation; bark on medium-aged to mature trees papery and peeling
........5 Leaves (fresh) not strongly fragrant, with stellate hairs or punctate scales, leaf venation various but not strongly parallel, bark various but not papery
..........6 Vestiture of the lower leaf surface of silvery and/or reddish peltate scales; plants hermaphroditic, the flowers bisexual; fruit a fleshy drupe
..........6 Vestiture of the lower leaf surface in part of stellate hairs (and also of simple acicular hairs and gland-tipped hairs); plants monoecious, the male flowers in yellow to brownish catkins, the female flowers solitary or in small spikes; fruit a nut in a cupule (an acorn)
......4 Leaves glabrous, or if hairy, with strictly simple hairs.
............ 7 Flowers solitary, terminal, large (> 5 cm in diameter); pistils many, carpels separate; petals many (typically > 8); leaves mostly > 10 cm long (at least some on a branch longer than 10 cm); fruit an aggregate of follicles, each dehiscing along 1 suture; stipule scar circumferential at each node, encircling the twig
............ 7 Flowers either in axillary racemes, panicles, umbels, fascicles, or solitary, or in terminal corymbs, umbels, compound cymes, or racemes, small (< 5 cm in diameter); pistil 1, with 1-8 fused carpels; petals 3-8; leaves < 30 cm long; fruit either a drupe, berry, or capsule; stipule scars either absent or linear or triangular, not circumferentially encircling the twig.
............ ..8 Inflorescence terminal, a corymb, umbel, compound cyme, or raceme; fruit either a capsule (dehiscing along 5 longitudinal sutures) or a few-seeded berry.
............ ....9 Inflorescence a compound cyme; petals deep red to magenta; fruit a few-seeded drupe
............ ....9 Inflorescence a corymb, umbel, or raceme; petals white or pink; fruit a capsule, opening by 5 longitudinal sutures.
............ ......10 Capsules ovoid to globose or subglobose, about as long as broad, 5-8 mm long; leaves 5-12 cm long, 2-3× as long as wide
............ ......10 Capsules elongate, > 2× as long as broad, 8-18 mm long; leaves 10-30 cm long, 3-5× as long as wide
............ ..8 Inflorescence axillary, a raceme, panicle, umbel, fascicle, or solitary; fruit drupaceous, fleshy to dry, but not regularly dehiscent along sutures.
............ ........11 Flowers solitary, axillary or superaxillary; perianth somewhat fleshy, in whorls of 3; carpels numerous, partly fused; fruit an aggregate syncarp
............ ........11 Flowers in inflorescences of > 2 flowers; perianth not fleshy, in whorls of 4 or 5 (or 3 in Lauraceae); carpels 2, 3, 4, or 5, fused; fruit a capsule, drupe, or berry
............ ..........12 Inflorescence an axillary raceme (with an elongate central axis, to which all flowers/fruits are attached).
............ ............ 13 Fruit a dry, tan to brown, spherical or winged drupe; stamens 5 or 10; carpels 2-5; leaves oblanceolate (rarely narrowly elliptic), < 2.5 cm wide, the apex obtuse (more rarely acute, retuse, or rounded)
............ ............ 13 Fruit a fleshy, black, spherical drupe; stamens 10; carpels 1; leaves elliptic, the apex acute to short-acuminate
............ ..........12 Inflorescence either an axillary umbel or fascicle (or reduced to solitary) or an axillary compound inflorescence (panicle or compound cyme), with 2-3 orders of branching.
............ ............ ..14 Fruit a fleshy and oily 1-seeded drupe; flowers 3-merous, with separate and undifferentiated perianth segments; fresh plants strongly aromatic; inflorescence compound, a panicle or compound cyme (with 2-3 orders of branching); [Basal Angiosperms]
............ ............ ..14 Fruit a fleshy but not oily 1-8-seeded drupe or berry; flowers 4-8-merous, with differentiated sepals and petals, the petals usually basally fused; fresh plants not strongly aromatic; inflorescence an axillary umbel or fascicle (or reduced to solitary), a central axis absent or < 1 cm long; [Eudicots].
............ ............ ....15 Plants unarmed (or with marginal leaf prickles or spines); stamens 4-7, not epipetalous; fruit a drupe with 4-8 pyrenes;flowers 4-7-merous
............ ............ ....15 Plants armed with nodal thorns; stamens 5 and staminodia 5, epipetalous; fruit a berry or drupe with 1 seed;flowers 5-merous
1 Leaves deciduous.
............ ............ ......16 Leaf base deeply to shallowly cordate, with 3-7 palmate veins from the base; leaf blade about as wide as long or a little longer, mostly 0.9-1.3× as long as wide.
............ ............ ........17 Juncture of petiole and leaf blade with 2 red glands; corolla radially symmetrical, with 5-8 petals, white with red veins towards the base of the petals; flowers unisexual; fruit globose, 4-8 cm in diameter; main palmate leaf veins 3 (-5)
............ ............ ........17 Juncture of petiole and leaf blade eglandular, but the uppermost 1-3 mm of the petiole swollen into a prominent upper pulvinus; corolla bilaterally symmetrical, with 5 petals, pink to purple (rarely white in some cultivars); flowers bisexual; fruit an oblong, flat legume, 6-10 cm long; main palmate leaf veins 5-7 (-9)
............ ............ ......16 Leaf base cuneate, rounded, truncate, subcordate, or auriculate (with 2 small “earlobe-like” lobes at the base of the leaf blade), with 1 (mid) vein from the base (3 veins from the base in Celtis in CANNABACEAE); leaf blade about as wide as long, or somewhat to much longer, 0.9-10× as long as wide.
............ ............ ..........18 Leaves 0.9-1.4× as long as wide (some taxa keyed in both leads).
............ ............ ............ 19 Stipule scars circumferential, forming a line around the twig; flowers and aggregate fruits solitary, terminal; [Basal Angiosperms]
............ ............ ............ 19 Stipule scars not circumferential (or not apparent); flowers and simple fruits in inflorescences of 1-many flowers, axillary or terminal, but not simultaneously solitary and terminal; [Eudicots].
............ ............ ............ ..20 Leaf blade 4-30 cm long, > 3× as long as the stiff petiole.
............ ............ ............ ....21 Petioles 1-5 (or more) cm long; leaves broadly orbicular, rounded at the base, usually rounded (rarely obtuse or nearly acute) at the apex, entire; hairs on foliage simple or absent; fruit a fleshy drupe
............ ............ ............ ....21 Petioles < 1 cm long; leaves various in shape, often acuminate at the apex and/or cuneate at the base, often with some tendency to toothing; hairs on foliage stellate (use at least 10× magnification), at least in part; fruit either a nut borne in a cup (acorn) or a dry, subglobose 3-valved capsule, with 1 seed.
............ ............ ............ ......22 Fruit a nut in a cupule (an acorn); flowers unisexual, greenish or brownish, individually inconspicuous, the male flowers borne in catkins
............ ............ ............ ......22 Fruit a dry, subglobose 3-valved capsule, with 1 seed; flowers bisexual, white, conspicuous
............ ............ ..........18 Leaves > 1.4× as long as wide.
............ ............ ............ ........23 Leaves densely covered with silvery peltate scales (use 10× or greater magnification), giving the leaf blade surface a metallic appearance
............ ............ ............ ........23 Leaves glabrous, glabrescent or variously pubescent (including densely and silkily so, giving the leaf surface a shiny appearance), but not as above.
............ ............ ............ ..........24 Plants bearing nodal thorns; leaves elliptic to obovate, 3-9 cm long, 1-4 cm wide, 1.5-4× as long as wide.
............ ............ ............ ............ 25 Sap clear, not viscous; sepals 4; petals 4, densely long-hairy on their upper (inner) side); fruit a yellow, 1-seeded drupe, 20-30 mm long; [FL southward]
............ ............ ............ ............ 25 Sap milky or nearly clear but thick and sticky; sepals 5; petals 5, not densely long-hairy; fruit a black, 5-seeded berry, 5-15 mm long; [widespread in our area]
............ ............ ............ ..........24 Plants unarmed (except spiny in Maclura in MORACEAE); leaves various in shape, from broadest towards the base, near the middle, or towards the apex, 3-80 cm long, 1-30 cm wide, 1.5-10× as long as wide.
............ ............ ............ ............ ..26 Leaves distinctly widest near the base (at a point < 0.3× of the way from the base of the leaf blade to its apex), gradually long-tapering to an acuminate apex.
............ ............ ............ ............ ....27 Fruit a spherical, dry drupe, 4-8 mm in diameter, with a single seed; leaf 1.5-6 cm wide
............ ............ ............ ............ ....27 Fruit a spherical, fleshy multiple, 80-120 mm in diameter; leaf 5-8 cm wide
............ ............ ............ ............ ..26 Leaves widest near the middle or towards the tip of the leaf blade (at a point > 0.4× of the way from the base of the leaf blade to its apex).
............ ............ ............ ............ ......28 Pubescence of the foliage stellate (at least in part; simple hairs sometimes present as well); flowers unisexual, the individual flowers inconspicuous, male flowers in catkins; fruit a nut in a cupule (an acorn)
............ ............ ............ ............ ......28 Pubescence of the foliage simple or absent (except stellate in STYRACACEAE); flowers bisexual, conspicuous, borne variously, but not in catkins (except in Leitneria); fruit various.
............ ............ ............ ............ ........29 Leaf surface green (often somewhat paler green than the upper surface, but not whitened).
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ 31 Flowers solitary; ovary superior; perianth either 3-merous and whorled or many-merous and spiraled; leaves mostly > 20 cm long and > 8 cm wide, distinctly broadest towards the apex (> 0.6× of the way from the leaf blade base to apex) (except Magnolia acuminata, which is sometimes both shorter, narrower, and broadest near the middle or towards the base); [Basal Angiosperms].
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ..32 Flowers axillary, < 2 cm across, brown or maroon; perianth 3-merous, whorled; fresh foliage with a strong musky odor; fruit a fleshy berry; leaves cuneate at the base; twigs lacking circumferential stipule scars at each node
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ..32 Flowers terminal, > 4 cm across, white, pale yellow, or pink; perianth many-merous, spiraled; fresh foliage not noticeably aromatic; fruit an aggregate of follicles; leaves cuneate or auriculate at the base; twigs with circumferential stipule scars at each node
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ 31 Flowers in inflorescences of several to many; ovary inferior (or superior in Diospyros in EBENACEAE and Cyrilla in CYRILLACEAE); perianth 4-5-merous; leaves mostly < 20 cm long and < 10 cm wide, broadest near the middle or towards the apex; [Eudicots].
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ....33 Leaves with prominently parallel-arcing secondary veins; inflorescence a terminal corymb; leaves clustered at the tips of the twigs, thus appearing pseudo-whorled; trichomes of the leaf undersurface predominantly 2-branched (some simple) (use at least 10× magnification); flowers 4-merous; fruit a blue drupe; small tree
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ....33 Leaves with secondary veins more obscure and complexly branching into tertiary veins; inflorescence axillary (often on the previous year’s wood), solitary to variously fascicled, clustered, or in racemes; leaves arrayed distichously along horizontal or arching twigs, not prominently clustered or pseudo-whorled (except often in Cyrilla in CYRILLACEAE, Symplocos in SYMPLOCACEAE, and Nyssa in NYSSACEAE); trichomes of the leaf undersurface either simple or stellate (or absent); flowers 4-5-merous; fruit a green, blue, or black drupe, an orange berry, or a green to brownish indehiscent capsule; small to large tree.
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ......34 Pubescence of foliage and other parts stellate (use at least 10× magnification); petals 4-5, white, 10-25 mm long; fruit dryish, indehiscent, either longitudinally 2-4-winged or not winged
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ......34 Pubescence of foliage and other parts simple; petals either 0, or 4-5 and pink, white, or greenish-yellow, or 10 and greenish-yellow; fruit either a somewhat to very fleshy drupe or berry or a dry, brownish, spherical drupe, 2-2.5 mm in diameter.
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ........35 Leaves < 2.5 cm wide, dark green above, somewhat thickened, and tardily deciduous or semi-evergreen; fruit a dry, brownish, spherical drupe, 2-2.5 mm in diameter; inflorescence a narrowly cylindrical raceme with > 40 flowers
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ........35 Leaves > 2.5 cm wide, usually medium-green above, herbaceous in texture, promptly seasonally deciduous; fruit a somewhat to very fleshy drupe or berry, > 5 mm in diameter; inflorescence a solitary flower or cluster, head, or irregular raceme of < 15 flowers.
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ..........36 Fruit a drupe (green when ripe), cylindrical to barrel-shaped, 8-12 mm long; leaves rather thick and leathery in texture, persistent into the winter, dropping tardily or at latest the following spring; flowers bisexual; stamens 30-50, in 5 fascicles
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ..........36 Fruit a berry (orange when ripe) or a drupe (blue-black, yellow, orange, or red when ripe), 8-50 mm long, spherical or ovoid to ellipsoid; leaves thin in texture, promptly deciduous in the autumn; flowers functionally unisexual; stamens 5-16, separate.
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ 37 Fruit a spherical berry, 15-50 mm long, orange when ripe, subtended by the enlarged and persistent woody or leathery calyx; vascular bundles 1 per leaf scar; leaves never toothed; leaves whitish-green beneath; leaf midrib and upper petiole with tiny glands on their upper surfaces (reddish initially, then darkening) (use at least 10× magnification); leaves glabrate to tomentose with curly hairs beneath; female and male flowers on separate trees (dioecious); stamens 16; widest point of the leaf usually at the middle or below, the apex acute to acuminate
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ 37 Fruit an ovoid or ellipsoid drupe, 8-30 -40 mm long, blue-black, yellow, orange, or red when ripe; vascular bundles 3 per leaf scar; leaves sometimes bearing a few irregular teeth; leaves pale to medium green beneath; leaf midrib and upper petiole lacking reddish to dark glands on their upper surfaces; leaves glabrous or glabrate beneath; female and male flowers on the same tree (monoecious); stamens 5-12; widest point of the leaf usually beyond or at the middle, the apex obtuse to strikingly and abruptly acuminate
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