Flora of the Southeastern United States
2022 Edition

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Key J2: woody angiosperms with opposite, simple leaves with toothed margins {add [Abelia] CAPRIFOLIACEAE}

1 Leaves evergreen.
..2 Plant a shrub, erect, not requiring support.
....3 Leaves with spiny margins
....3 Leaves with crenate or serrate margins.
......4 Leaves slightly to strongly fleshy; inflorescence a head; [maritime situations]
 Iva
......4 Leaves not fleshy; inflorescence either a head or otherwise; [collectively widespread].
........5 Leaves > 8 cm long, typically spotted with yellow, coarsely toothed; fruit a red drupe; [commonly cultivated, rarely seeding down nearby]
........5 Leaves < 8 cm long, not yellow-spotted, serrulate; fruit a capsule or purplish drupe; [plants native or cultivated].
..........6 Inflorescence a head; [s. FL]
..........6 Inflorescence otherwise; [more widespread].
............ 7 {XXXX}
............ 7 {YYYY}
............ ..8 {ZZZZ}
............ ..8 {AAAA}
..2 Plant a subshrub, creeping shrub, or liana.
............ ....9 Leaves spinose-serrate; [aliens, rarely naturalized]
............ ....9 Leaves serrate (not spinose), serrulate, or crenate; [aliens and natives, collectively widespread].
............ ......10 Leaves slightly to strongly fleshy; inflorescence a head; [maritime situations]
 Iva
............ ......10 Leaves not fleshy; inflorescence otherwise; [collectively widespread].
............ ........11 Leaves on vigorous shoots with a few coarse rounded teeth towards the base (most leaves entire)
............ ........11 Leaves serrulate to serrate, the teeth uniformly around the margin or concentrated towards the tip; fruit dry, either indehiscent and 1-seeded or capsular and with several seeds.
............ ..........12 Flowers 5-merous; petals fused; fruit indehiscent, 1-seeded; [montane, from e. TN, WV, and w. MD northwards in our area]
............ ..........12 Flowers 4- or 5-merous; petals separate; fruit capsular, dehiscent, several-seeded; [collectively widespread in our area]
1 Leaves deciduous.
............ ............ 13 Leaves slightly to strongly fleshy; inflorescence a head, subtended by an involucre of phyllaries; [maritime situations]
 Iva
............ ............ 13 Leaves not fleshy; inflorescence, flower, and fruit structure various, but not with the combination of features as above (sometimes the flowers in a head subtended by bracts, but then with other features differing, such as stamens 4, or green calyx present, or petals separate, or fruit a schizocarp of mericarps, etc.); [collectively widespread].
............ ............ ..14 Lianas climbing by twining or by adventitious roots.
............ ............ ....15 Stems with retrorse prickles; foliage scabrous
............ ............ ....15 Stems not prickly; foliage smooth to variously hairy, but not scabrous.
............ ............ ......16 Leaves on vigorous shoots with a few coarse rounded teeth towards the base (most leaves entire), the larger leaves < 3 cm wide; lianas climbing by twining; fruit a fleshy berry; flowers 5-merous, with a fused, tubular corolla
............ ............ ......16 Leaves serrate, the teeth towards the leaf apex, the larger leaves > 4 cm wide; lianas climbing by adventitious roots; fruit a capsule; flowers 7-10-merous, with separate petals
............ ............ ..14 Upright shrubs or trees, lacking any adaptations for climbing.
............ ............ ........17 Trees; leaves often a mix of alternate and opposite.
............ ............ ..........18 Leaves harshly scabrous on the upper surface; fruit a multiple of achenes; leaf venation pinnate but irregular
............ ............ ..........18 Leaves not scabrous; fruit a 2-4-seeded drupe; leaf venation neatly pinnate, the lateral veins nearly straight and parallel to one another
............ ............ ........17 Shrubs or trees; leaves strictly opposite (or often a mix of alternate and opposite in RHAMNACEAE).
............ ............ ............ 19 Trees; leaves palmately-veined, with 5 or more veins from the base; [rarely naturalizing]
............ ............ ............ 19 Shrubs; leaves either triple-veined from near the base or pinnate-veined; [collectively widespread and common]
............ ............ ............ ..20 Leaves strongly triple-veined from at or near the base of the blade, the 2 lateral veins arching towards the tip and rejoining the midvein or nearly so (becoming diffuse before rejoining); petals 4, white; stamens 15-90
............ ............ ............ ..20 Leaves pinnate-veined; petals various, not both 4 and white (except sometimes in Hydrangea); stamens 1-15 (except 15-30 in Exochorda in ROSACEAE).
............ ............ ............ ....21 Inflorescence head-like; flowers sympetalous and 4-lobed; fruit 2 seeded
............ ............ ............ ....21 Inflorescence more diffuse, with internal axes and pedicels; flowers not both sympetalous and 4-lobed (except in Forsythia and Buddleja); fruit 1-seeded, 2-4-seeded, or 4-many-seeded.
............ ............ ............ ......22 Plants in flower.
............ ............ ............ ........23 Corolla absent; flowers inconspicuous and small, in axillary fascicles or catkins.
............ ............ ............ ..........24 Flowers in catkins; leaves usually a mix of opposite and alternate
............ ............ ............ ..........24 Flowers in axillary fascicles; leaves strictly opposite (subopposite)
............ ............ ............ ........23 Corolla present; flowers larger, in terminal cymes, corymbs, racemes, panicles, or in axillary cymes or fascicles.
............ ............ ............ ............ 25 Petals separate; stamens 8-10 (-60) (or 4-6 in RHAMNACEAE and Euonymus in CELASTRACEAE).
............ ............ ............ ............ ..26 Flowers 1-few, in axillary cymes; stamens 4-6; stems brown, tan, gray, or green.
............ ............ ............ ............ ....27 Leaf venation pinnate, but irregular and reticulated; stems green
............ ............ ............ ............ ....27 Leaf venation neatly pinnate, the lateral veins nearly straight and parallel to one another; stems brown, tan, or gray
............ ............ ............ ............ ..26 Flowers 1 and terminal, or many, in terminal panicles or corymbs; stamens 8-10 (-60); stems brown, tan or gray.
............ ............ ............ ............ ......28 Inflorescence a solitary, terminal flower; stamens 30-60
............ ............ ............ ............ ......28 Inflorescence a terminal panicle or corymb; stamens 8-15
............ ............ ............ ............ 25 Petals fused, at least basally, and often strongly tubular; stamens 2, 4, or 5.
............ ............ ............ ............ ........29 Stamens 5.
............ ............ ............ ............ ..........30 Petals white, fused basally only, the lobes spreading
............ ............ ............ ............ ..........30 Petals pink, yellow, or reddish, fused for most of their length
............ ............ ............ ............ ........29 Stamens 2 or 4.
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ 31 Stamens 2; petals yellow; flowers radially symmetrical; inflorescence an axillary fascicle
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ 31 Stamens 4; petals white, pink, or lavender; flowers bilabiate; inflorescence a terminal thyrse or panicle or an axillary cyme.
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ..32 Petals 4; inflorescence a terminal thyrse
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ..32 Petals 5; inflorescence a terminal panicle or an axillary cyme.
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ....33 Inflorescence an axillary cyme
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ....33 Inflorescence a terminal panicle
............ ............ ............ ......22 Plants in fruit.
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ......34 Fruit a drupe or achene, indehiscent, fleshy at maturity (or dry in Kolkwitzia).
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ........35 Fruit an achene (1-seeded), dry at maturity
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ........35 Fruit a drupe (1-4 seeded), fleshy at maturity.
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ..........36 Inflorescence a terminal corymb
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ..........36 Inflorescence axillary, fascicled or a cyme.
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ 37 Foliage with stellate hairs; fruit a pink-purple 4-seeded drupe
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ 37 Foliage glabrous or with simple hairs; fruit a dark red, black, or blue 1-4-seeded drupe.
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ..38 Fruit a 1-seeded drupe; [NC southwards and westwards]
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ..38 Fruit a 2-4-seeded drupe; [widespread in our region]
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ......34 Fruit a capsule, dehiscent, dry at maturity.
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ....39 Inflorescence a catkin, the flowers small (< 5 mm in diameter) and tightly arranged on the inflorescence axis (>5 per cm of the axis)
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ....39 Inflorescence various, but more diffuse, the flowers larger (> 5 mm in diameter, except for some flowers in Hydrangea in HYDRANGEACEAE) and loosely arranged (< 5 per cm of axis).
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ......40 Capsule prominently 5-angled (star-shaped in ×-section)
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ......40 Capsule not angled.
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ........41 Inflorescence axillary, fascicled.
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ..........42 Capsule pink to red; fruits solitary or in axillary cymes
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ..........42 Capsule brown; fruits in axillary fascicles
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ........41 Inflorescence terminal, a raceme, panicle, corymb, or compound cyme.
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ 43 Inflorescence a flat-topped corymb or rounded compound cyme, as wide as or wider than long
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ 43 Inflorescence elongated, a raceme or panicle, longer than wide.
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ..44 Capsule elongate (>3× as long as wide), 8-25 mm long
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ..44 Capsule about as long as wide, 3-6 mm long.
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ....45 {XXXX}
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ....45 {YYYY}