Flora of the Southeastern United States
2022 Edition

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Key to Sabatia

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1 Flowers with (7-) 8-12 (-14) corolla lobes.
..2 Pedicels < 5 mm long; calyx subtended by linear bracts that usually exceed the corolla lobes; terminal flowers in capitate clusters (less commonly single).
....3 Basal leaves similar in shape and size to the stem leaves; cauline leaves (25-) 35-50 (-65) mm long, (7-) 10-20 (-25) mm wide, 2-4× as long as wide; corolla lobes pale rose or white; [mountain slopes, sw. NC, nw. GA, and se. TN south to c. AL]
....3 Basal leaves much broader and shorter than the stem leaves; cauline leaves (15-) 40-80 (-100) mm long, 1-3 mm wide, 20-60× as long as wide; corolla lobes medium rose to deep rose; [bogs and savannas, Coastal Plain]
..2 Pedicels > 10 mm long; calyx not subtended by long bracts; terminal flower single.
......4 Upper stem leaves about as wide as the diameter of the stem, or narrower; calyx lobes terete or semi-terete; stems 6-12 dm tall; [Taxodium ascendens-Nyssa biflora depressions and wet pine flatwoods in se. SC and southwards]
......4 Upper stem leaves much wider than the diameter of the stem; calyx lobes flat, linear to narrowly oblanceolate; stems 3-12 dm tall; [various habitats, primarily along the shores of blackwater rivers or ponds, or in tidal marshes].
........5 Primary branches opposite; terminal flower short-stalked (much shorter than the first internode of the adjacent branch); stems 5-12 dm tall; [drawdown blackwater riverbanks and similar situations]
........5 Primary branches usually alternate; terminal flower long-stalked (usually longer than the first internode of the adjacent branch); stems 3-7 dm tall; [brackish marshes or openings along blackwater streams].
..........6 Surficial stolons usually absent or poorly developed; internodes commonly much longer than leaves; [tidal brackish or freshwater marshes]
..........6 Surficial stolons usually present and well-developed, elongate; internodes shorter than to equaling the leaves; [openings of blackwater streams]
1 Flowers with 5-6 (-7) corolla lobes.
............7 Upper branches of main stem alternate.
..............8 Calyx tube strongly winged; corolla lobes pink (rarely white); [w. KY, MS, and se. LA westward, and very rarely introduced farther east]; [section Campestria].
................9 Leaves thick, succulent when fresh, blackening on drying; corolla lobes 4-10 (-13) mm long; plant diffusely branched from the base; leaf base broadly cuneate, not at all clasping; [se. LA westward]
................9 Leaves thin when fresh, not blackening on drying; corolla lobes 8-25 mm long; plant branched above the base; leaf base either truncate to rounded and clasping the stem, or crenate and not clasping; [w. KY, MS, and se. LA westward, and very rarely introduced farther east]
..................10 Basal leaves usually present at flowering time; calyx lobes shorter than the corolla lobes; corolla lobes elliptic, broadest near their midpoints
..................10 Basal leaves absent at flowering time; calyx lobes usually as long as or longer than the corolla lobes; corolla lobes spatulate to obovate, widest past their midpoints.
....................11 Leaves (main leaves of the stems) 1-4.5 (-6) mm wide; corolla lobes deep magenta pink, > 1.8× as long as wide, widest at a point about 0.8× from base to apex; corolla apex rounded; [endemic in Saline County, AR]
....................11 Leaves (main leaves of the stems) 7-17 mm wide; corolla lobes light pink (rarely white), <1.8× as long as wide, widest at a point ca. 0.6× from base to apex; corolla apex acute; [more widespread]
..............8 Calyx tube not winged; corolla lobes pink or white; [more widespread, primarily Coastal Plain].
......................12 Calyx lobes foliaceous, 5-8 mm wide, oblong to oblanceolate, mostly exceeding the corolla lobes
......................12 Calyx lobes linear-setaceous, 0.5-2 mm wide, if equaling the corolla lobes then very narrow and not foliaceous.
........................13 Calyx lobes (3-) 4-7 (-8) mm long; corolla lobes white
........................13 Calyx lobes (4-) 6-17 (-23) mm long; corolla lobes pink (rarely white in individual plants).
..........................14 Plants perennial, often with several stems from a caudex; calyx lobes > 3/4× as long as the corolla lobes, and sometimes exceeding them; [saturated soils from Coastal Plain savannas to Mountain bogs]
..........................14 Plants annual, solitary; calyx lobes up to 3/4× as long as the corolla lobes
............................15 Corolla lobes (18-) 20-25 mm long; leaves succulent (usually drying rugose and green)
............................15 Corolla lobes 10-15 mm long; leaves thin (usually drying flat and darkening)
............7 Upper branches of main stem opposite.
..............................16 Corolla lobes pink (rarely white); pedicels at least in part > 5 mm long.
................................17 Lower half of stem winged; leaves ovate, clasping, < 2× as long as wide; [widespread in our area]
................................17 Lower half of stem not winged; leaves elliptic to lanceolate, more or less tapered to the base, mostly > 3× as long as wide; [Coastal Plain or very rarely Piedmont]
..............................16 Corolla lobes white or creamy white; pedicels (above the uppermost bracts or branches) ca. 1-2 (-5) mm long.
..................................18 Lower portion of stem quadrangular, narrowly winged; plants annual or biennial, with 1 (-several) stems arising from a taproot
..................................18 Lower portion of stem terete, not winged (though the upper stem is quadrangular or angled in S. difformis); plants perennial, with several stems arising from a short rhizome; [section Eusabatia, subsection Difformes].
....................................19 Leaves and upper stem not glaucous; stem terete below, becoming quadrangular or quadrangular-angled above; corolla lobes (5-) 7-15 (-21) mm long; [widespread in our area]
....................................19 Leaves and upper stem glaucous; stem terete throughout; corolla lobes (4-) 5-7 (-8) mm long; [GA southward and westward].
......................................20 Calyx-lobes erect, (0.1-) 0.2-1.5 (-2.0) mm long, as long as or shorter than the calyx-tube; [sw. GA and n. FL westward to e. LA]
......................................20 Calyx lobes strongly recurved, (1.0-) 1.5-3 mm long, longer than the calyx-tube; [e. and sc. GA south to ne. FL]