Flora of the Southeastern United States
2022 Edition

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Key to Ipomoea

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1 Erect woody shrub to 2 m tall; stems hollow
1 Trailing or twining vine; stems solid or hollow.
..2 Corolla salverform, the long narrow tube cylindrical (with sides more-or-less parallel) for most of its length, the limb abruptly flaring at the summit of the tube.
....3 Corolla 3-14 cm long, lavender to white; flowers open from evening until early morning.
......4 Leaves tomentose beneath; corolla mostly white on the outer surface, lavender to purple on the inner surface, thus bicolored in-and-out; [of outer Coastal Plain dunes, hammocks, and shell middens from se. NC southward]
......4 Leaves glabrous beneath; corolla either white on both surfaces or lavender on both surfaces, not bicolored in-and-out; [weedy, widespread, of disturbed habitats].
........5 Corolla 10-14 cm long, white
........5 Corolla 3-7 cm long, violet or lavender
....3 Corolla 2-4 cm long, scarlet, orange or yellow; flowers open from early morning to late morning or late afternoon.
..........6 Leaf blade pinnately divided into 11-31 (or more) linear segments (with parallel sides)
..........6 Leaf blade entire, or angled, or lobed into 3-7 lanceolate or ovate segments (broadening towards their bases).
............7 Sepals acute to obtuse, the tip sometimes with a mucro; [s. peninsular FL]
............7 Sepals acute, at least the 2 outermost with caudate tips; [collectively widespread].
..............8 Inner sepals 4-6 mm long; pedicels becoming reflexed in fruit; leaves usually unlobed (though sometimes with a few coarse dentate teeth)
..............8 Inner sepals 2-3 (-4) mm long; pedicels remining erect in fruit; leaves usually 3-lobed about halfway from margin to base
..2 Corolla funnelform to campanulate, the short to long tube expanding in diameter upwards from below the middle, the limb gradually to abruptly flaring at the summit of the tube.
................9 Pedicels and peduncles with spreading, ascending, or reflexed trichomes; gynoecium 3-parted; [Pharbitis clade]
..................10 Sepals soft-pilose on the outer surface with slender trichomes
..................10 Sepals hispid-pilose on the outer surface, with swollen-based trichomes.
....................11 Sepals with slightly narrowed green tips shorter than to slightly longer than the body of the sepal; corolla pink (rarely white or blue); sepals oblong-lanceolate, obtuse or acute; leaves entire or 3–5-lobed
....................11 Sepals with very narrow elongate green tips much longer than the body of the sepal; corolla blue with a white tube (drying pink): sepals ovate with an elongate apex, notably accrescent in fruit; leaves usually 3-lobed.
......................12 Sepals < 2 cm long at anthesis, abruptly narrowed upwards, the long subacute tips strongly spreading or recurved outwards; corolla < 3.5 cm long; peduncles very short.
......................12 Sepals ca. 3 cm long at anthesis, gradually narrowed upwards, the long acute tips suberect, straight, scarcely spreading; corolla 4–4.5 cm long; peduncles long or short
................9 Pedicels and peduncles glabrous or with short, appressed trichomes; gynoecium 2-parted.
........................13 Stems trailing, rooting at the nodes; leaf apex emarginate, truncate, or obtuse; [of beaches from se. NC southward].
..........................14 Corolla lavender; larger leaves not lobed (though notched at the apex on at least the larger, better-developed leaves)
..........................14 Corolla white with a yellowish or purple eye; larger leaves 3-7-lobed
........................13 Stems erect or twining, not rooting at the nodes (except sometimes in I. batatas); leaf apex acute to acuminate; [collectively of various habitats, not beaches, widespread].
............................15 Leaves palmately dissected with 5 (-7) lobes, the sinuses to within 2 mm of the petiole summit or the midvein.
..............................16 Leaves pinnately dissected (the pair of lobes about the basal pair diverging from the midvein several mm above the basal pair); axillary buds developing stipule-like leaves
..............................16 Leaves palmately dissected; axillary buds not developing leaves
............................15 Leaves entire or pinnately lobed.
................................17 Leaf base sagittate
................................17 Leaf base cuneate to cordate.
..................................18 Corolla 1.5-2.5 cm long, white or lavender
....................................19 Corolla white; anthers purple; sepals lanceolate; capsule 10-15 mm in diamter; seeds 5-6 mm long
....................................19 Corolla lavender; anthers white; sepals oblong; capsules 5-6 mm in diameter; seeds 2.8-3.0 mm long
..................................18 Corolla 3-8 cm long, at least partly pink to lavender (sometimes entirely white in I. batatas).
......................................20 Sepals ovate to oblong-elliptic; corolla usually white on the limb, the throat purple; anthers 5-7 mm long
......................................20 Sepals oblong-ovate to oblong-lanceolate; corolla usually pink to lavender on the limb, the throat lavender to purple; anthers 1.5-3.2 mm long.
........................................21 Sepals unequal in length, oblong-ovate, with acute to caudate apices; leaves mostly 10-15 cm wide
........................................21 Sepals more-or-less equal in length, oblong-lanceolate, with acuminate apices; leaves 2-5 cm wide