Flora of the Southeastern United States
2022 Edition

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Key B: trilliums with unmottled leaves and pedicellate flowers, of the Erectum Group

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1 Flowers held below the leaves (the pedicel declined below a horizontal plane).
..2 Stamens far exceeding the pistil, filaments as long as the ovary or longer, at least partly maroon, the anther sacs yellow to maroon; ovary small, globose, 3-12 mm long, dark purplish black; flower fragrance pungent, rose-like; pedicel long, 3-13 cm long; petals strongly overlapping, usually maroon (rarely white or whitish)
..2 Stamens at most 1.5× longer than the pistil, filaments shorter than the ovary, white (less commonly purplish), the anther sacs lavender to vivid purple (or albino); ovary white to pink or dull red, large, ovoid, 10-17 mm long; flower fragrance various; pedicel short to long, 1.5-12 cm long; petals not strongly overlapping, usually white (rarely maroon).
....3 Pedicels short, 1.5-4 cm long.
......4 Anthers 7.5 mm long or less, about as long as the filaments or shorter; petals narrowly elliptic to obovate, often scarcely larger than the sepals, delicate, occasionally margined in pink or green; [of damp forests of n. VA and northward]
......4 Anthers 7.0 mm long or more, longer than the filaments; petals ovate to elliptic, much broader than the sepals; [of mesic forests of n. NC southward]
....3 Pedicels long, 4-12 cm long.
........5 Stamens about as long as the ovary or slightly longer; filaments short, ca. 1/3 the length of the anthers or shorter; filaments ½ as long as the ovary or shorter; pollen creamy to pale yellow; filaments and anthers white, the anthers at least in part somewhat appressed against the ovary
........5 Stamens far exceeding ovary height; filaments ca. ½ the length of the anthers; pollen creamy, yellow, or pale grayish purple; anthers and filaments also variable in color, mostly white, occasionally purplish; anthers mostly longer than the ovary and not appressed against it
1 Flowers held at or above the level of the leaves (the pedicel nearly horizontal, inclined above the horizontal, or erect).
..........6 Ovary flask-shaped, broadest near the base, usually white to pinkish (sometimes darker); petals usually white to creamy white (maroon forma occasional).
............7 Stamens about as long as the ovary or slightly longer; filaments short, ca. 1/3 the length of the anthers or shorter; filaments ½ as long as the ovary or shorter; pollen creamy to pale yellow; filaments and anthers white, the anthers at least in part somewhat appressed against the ovary
............7 Stamens far exceeding ovary height; filaments ca. ½ the length of the anthers; pollen creamy, yellow, or pale grayish purple; anthers and filaments also variable in color, mostly white, occasionally purplish; anthers mostly longer than the ovary and not appressed against it
..........6 Ovary globose, widest near the middle, black to purplish black; petals white, maroon, yellowish, or otherwise.
..............8 Petals lanceolate to narrowly ovate or elliptic, spreading from base in the same plane as the sepals, rarely > 2× as broad as the sepals; sepals 0.5-0.8× as long as the pedicel, weakly sulcate-tipped (roundly keeled and upturned near apex); flower fragrance unpleasant, musty.
................9 Petals white
................9 Petals maroon to red
..............8 Petals ovate, overlapping in some instances and forming a cup-shaped base, variably recurved apically, > 2× as broad as the sepals; sepals 0.2-0.7× as long as the pedicel, sulcate-tipped; fragrance pleasant, sweet to fungal.
..................10 Sepals 0.4-0.7× as long as the pedicel; leaves broadly elliptic; stamens 1.2-1.8× pistil height; flowers generally large, petals much longer than the sepals; sepals green; petals usually white (rarely maroon); flower fragrance sweet, like green apples
..................10 Sepals 0.2-0.4× as long as the pedicel; leaves broadly obovate; stamens 0.9-1.6× pistil height; flowers relatively small, petals only slightly longer than the sepals; sepals suffused with purple; petals usually maroon (rarely white); flower fragrance fungal, like fresh mushrooms