Flora of the Southeastern United States
2022 Edition

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Key to Scutellaria

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1 Flowers axillary (the bracts subtending flowers resembling stem leaves in size and shape); stem leaves sessile or petioles < 4 mm.
..2 Corollas 12-32 mm long.
....3 Leaves deltate, apices obtuse; [sc. US, c. AR and se. OK south to w. LA and e. TX, in sandy woodlands and ravines]
....3 Leaves lanceolate to oblong-cordate, apices acute-acuminate; [NC, KY, and MO northwards, in wetlands]
..2 Corollas 5-10 mm long.
......4 Lower leaves hastate; plants glabrous
......4 Lower leaves ovate or deltoid-ovate; plants puberulent or pubescent.
........5 Stems glabrate, the pubescence ascending, curled or appressed, eglandular.
..........6 Median leaves 10-15 mm long; corolla 6.5-9 mm long
..........6 Median leaves 20-40 mm long; corolla 8-10 mm long
........5 Stems obviously hairy, the pubescence spreading, glandular, eglandular, or a mixture of both.
............7 Mid-stem leaves sessile; [widespread, southward to the FL panhandle].
..............8 Upper stems antrorse eglandular and spreading stipitate-glandular; leaf veins tending to anastomose along margins, lower surfaces with only stipitate-glandular hairs, or nearly so; fresh plants inodorous
..............8 Upper stems retrorse or spreading eglandular and/or stipitate-glandular; leaf veins usually unbranched along margins, lower surfaces clothed like stem with glandular and/or eglandular hairs; fresh plants with strong turpentine odor
............7 Mid-stem leaves petiolate.
................9 Calyx eglandular; plants annual; [widespread in the Coastal Plain, east to n. peninsular FL]
................9 Calyx glandular; plants perennial; [rocklands of s. FL]
1 Flowers in racemes (bracts subtending flowers much reduced, not leaf-like); stem leaf petioles > 4 mm.
..................10 Corolla tube interior lacking a sharply defined ring of hairs (annulus) at the bend of the tube near the mouth of the calyx (= non-annulate).
....................11 Racemes secund.
......................12 Corollas ca. 6 mm long; racemes terminal and axillary
......................12 Corollas ca. 10 mm long; racemes terminal or terminating axillary branches
....................11 Racemes not secund, flowers on more than one side of the axis.
........................13 Stem stipitate glandular
........................13 Stem not stipitate glandular
..........................14 Stems and petioles with ascending hairs; at least some racemes from axillary branches; mid to upper leaves truncate basally
..........................14 Stems and petioles with spreading or retrorse hairs; racemes terminal or in panicles; mid to upper leaves strongly cordate.
............................15 Margins of lower lip cleft and erose; lower lip with large lateral auricles (flabelliform)
............................15 Margins of lip entire; lip undulate or weakly auriculate.
..............................16 Lower lip entirely white with a few blue spots; leaf surface smooth with sparse glandular hairs
..............................16 Lower lip blue with two longitudinal white bands; leaf surface rugose, usually densely glandular hairy (but may be eglandular).
..................10 Corolla tube interior with a sharply defined ring of hairs (annulus) at the bend of the tube near the mouth of the calyx (= annulate).
................................17 At least some upper leaves entire.
..................................18 Leaf blades < 2.5 mm wide; rhizomes present, with fusiform tubers; [endemic to FL]
..................................18 Leaf blades > 3.0 mm wide; rhizomes either absent or present (if present short and without tubers); [more widespread]
....................................19 Leaves with stipitate glands
....................................19 Leaves without stipitate glands.
......................................20 Corolla glabrous, lower lip with an immaculate the white central band; leaf bases long-attenuate
......................................20 Corolla short pilose, lower lip with blue spots or lines on the white central band; leaf bases cuneate to deltoid.
........................................21 Mid to upper leaves mostly ovate or obovate, occasionally widely elliptic (lowest leaves strongly ovate); leaves mostly crenate or serrate throughout, if leaves entire, then just below the inflorescence; lowest pedicels of main inflorescence axis mostly > 4 mm long; [xeric, sandy uplands; s. GA south to s. FL]
........................................21 Mid to upper leaves mostly elliptic; leaves mostly entire or serrate throughout; leaves with entire margins not only confined to just below the inflorescence; lowest pedicels of main inflorescence mostly < 4 mm long; [various mesic or wet habitats; widespread]
................................17 All leaves serrate or crenate.
..........................................22 Second internode below the base of the inflorescence stipitate glandular.
............................................23 Calyces stipitate glandular.
..............................................24 Corollas 14-23 mm long
..............................................24 Corollas 24-39 mm long
............................................23 Calyces not stipitate glandular.
................................................25 Stipitate glands absent on leaf margins and veins on underside of leaf blade (sometimes sparse near petiole); upper portions of stem with zero to sparse stipitate glands and shorter, upwardly curled non-glandular hairs, leaves mainly cuneate to truncate (to subcordate)
................................................25 Stipitate glands present on leaf margins and on veins throughout underside of leaf blade; upper portion of stem with dense stipitate glands and shorter, randomly spreading non-glandular hairs, leaves mainly cordate to truncate (to cuneate)
..........................................22 Second internode below the base of the inflorescence eglandular.
..................................................26 Corollas > 21 mm long*.
....................................................27 Stems glabrous or glabrate below inflorescence; calyces eglandular; [Mountains and Piedmont]
....................................................27 Stems canescent below inflorescence; calyces stipitate glandular or punctate glandular; [mainly Coastal Plain].
......................................................28 Lower lip with 20+ blue spots; calyces stipitate glandular; [peninsular FL and s. GA]
......................................................28 Lower lip lacking blue spots; calyces punctate glandular; [s. SC to se. GA; disjunct to c. AL]
..................................................26 Corollas < 21 mm long*.
........................................................29 Calyces densely to sparsely canescent, eglandular or with punctate glands (stipitate glands may also be present).
..........................................................30 Leaves softly villous beneath; calyces and bracts eglandular
..........................................................30 Leaves glabrate, with appressed hairs on veins.
............................................................31 Stems canescent; calyces and bracts densely punctate glandular
............................................................31 Stems glabrate (rarely puberulent); calyces and bracts eglandular
........................................................29 Calyces pilose with spreading stipitate glandular hairs.
..............................................................32 Bracts with stipitate glands.
................................................................33 Leaves shallow crenate, moderately to densely hirsute and with sparse light yellow or translucent glands; bracts with hairs > 0.3 mm long; calyces with moderate translucent or faint yellow punctate glands; widespread in our region, including west of the Mississippi River in w. LA and e. TX]
................................................................33 Leaves deeply crenate or serrate, glabrate, with dense, resinous, yellow punctate glands; bracts with hairs < 0.2 mm long; calyces with prominent and dense resinous, yellow punctate glands; [Interior Highlands of MO, AR, and OK]
..............................................................32 Bracts without stipitate glands; leaves densely punctate glandular.
..................................................................34 Corollas 19-22 mm long; [Mountains of AL]
..................................................................34 Corollas 11-16 mm long; [Coastal Plain of SC and GA]