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Key to Scutellaria

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1 Flowers axillary (the bracts subtending flowers resembling stem leaves in size and shape); stem leaves sessile or petioles < 4 mm.
  2 Corollas 12-32 mm long.
    3 Leaves deltate, apices obtuse; [sc. US, c. AR and se. OK south to w. LA and e. TX, in sandy woodlands and ravines]
    3 Leaves lanceolate to oblong-cordate, apices acute-acuminate; [NC, KY, and MO northwards, in wetlands]
  2 Corollas 5-10 mm long.
      4 Lower leaves triangular or deltoid, with small hastate lobes; plants glabrous
      4 Lower leaves without hastate lobes, narrowly ovate, ovate, or deltoid ovate; plants puberulent, pubescent, or glabrate.
          6 Median leaves 10-15 mm long; corolla 6.5-9 mm long
          6 Median leaves 20-40 mm long; corolla 8-10 mm long
        5 Stems obviously hairy, the pubescence spreading, glandular, eglandular, or a mixture of both.
             7 Mid-stem leaves sessile; [widespread, southward to the FL panhandle].
               8 Upper stems antrorse eglandular and spreading stipitate-glandular; leaf veins tending to anastomose along margins, lower surfaces with only stipitate-glandular hairs, or nearly so; fresh plants inodorous
               8 Upper stems retrorse or spreading eglandular and/or stipitate-glandular; leaf veins usually unbranched along margins, lower surfaces clothed like stem with glandular and/or eglandular hairs; fresh plants with strong turpentine odor
                 9 Calyx eglandular; plants annual; [widespread in the Coastal Plain, east to n. peninsular FL]
1 Flowers in racemes or panicles (racemes of racemes) (bracts subtending flowers much reduced, not leaf-like); stem leaf petioles > 4 mm.
                   10 Corolla tube interior lacking a sharply defined ring of hairs (annulus) at the bend of the tube near the mouth of the calyx (= non-annulate).
                       12 Corollas ca. 10 mm long; racemes terminal or terminating axillary branches
                     11 Racemes not secund, flowers on more than one side of the axis.
                            14 Stems and petioles with ascending hairs; at least some racemes from axillary branches; mid to upper leaves truncate basally
                            14 Stems and petioles with spreading or retrorse hairs; racemes terminal or in panicles; mid to upper leaves strongly cordate.
                                16 Lower lip entirely white with a few blue spots; leaf surface smooth with sparse glandular hairs
                                16 Lower lip blue with two longitudinal white bands; leaf surface rugose, usually densely glandular hairy (but may be eglandular).
                   10 Corolla tube interior with a sharply defined ring of hairs (annulus) at the bend of the tube near the mouth of the calyx (= annulate).
                                    18 Leaf blades > 3.0 mm wide; rhizomes either absent or present (if present short and without tubers); [more widespread]
                                         20 Corolla short pilose, lower lip with blue spots or lines on the white central band; leaf bases cuneate to deltoid.
                                           21 Mid to upper leaves mostly ovate or obovate, occasionally widely elliptic (lowest leaves strongly ovate); leaves mostly crenate or serrate throughout, if leaves entire, then just below the inflorescence; lowest pedicels of main inflorescence axis mostly > 4 mm long; [xeric, sandy uplands; s. GA south to s. FL]
                                           21 Mid to upper leaves mostly elliptic; leaves mostly entire or serrate throughout; leaves with entire margins not only confined to just below the inflorescence; lowest pedicels of main inflorescence mostly < 4 mm long; [various mesic or wet habitats; widespread]
                                                    25 Stipitate glands absent on leaf margins and veins on underside of leaf blade (sometimes sparse near petiole); upper portions of stem with zero to sparse stipitate glands and shorter, upwardly curled non-glandular hairs, leaves mainly cuneate to truncate (to subcordate)
                                                    25 Stipitate glands present on leaf margins and on veins throughout underside of leaf blade; upper portion of stem with dense stipitate glands and shorter, randomly spreading non-glandular hairs, leaves mainly cordate to truncate (to cuneate)
                                                                     33 Leaves shallow crenate, moderately to densely hirsute and with sparse light yellow or translucent glands; bracts with hairs > 0.3 mm long; calyces with moderate translucent or faint yellow punctate glands; widespread in our region, including west of the Mississippi River in w. LA and e. TX]
                                                                     33 Leaves deeply crenate or serrate, glabrate, with dense, resinous, yellow punctate glands; bracts with hairs < 0.2 mm long; calyces with prominent and dense resinous, yellow punctate glands; [Interior Highlands of MO, AR, and OK]
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