Flora of the Southeastern United States
2022 Edition

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Keyed in multiple places:

Key to Agalinis

1 Bracts either lanceolate (and usually with 2 basal lobes) or (3-) 5-7-lobed, the lobes linear; calyx lobes (5-) 7-13 mm long; leaves (2-) 5-45 mm wide, lanceolate to broadly ovate in outline, 1-4× as long as wide, > 12 mm long
..2 Bracts lanceolate (and usually with 2 basal lobes); [calcareous or mafic glades and woodlands, SC, s. AL, MS, se. AR, ec. TX northward]
..2 Bracts (3-) 5-7-lobed, the lobes linear; [prairies; e. KS, e. OK, nc. and c. TX]
1 Bracts either linear or < 3 mm long; calyx lobes 0.2-8 mm long; leaves 0.2-6 (-7) mm wide, either filiform, linear, or narrowly lanceolate, 5-25× as long as wide, or ovate to lanceolate, 2.5-4× as long as wide and also < 3 mm long.
....3 Leaves fleshy; upper leaf surfaces with sessile, dome-shaped trichomes; [wetland habitats].
......4 Plant perennial, from horizontal rhizomes, 7-16 dm tall; corollas 25-35 mm long; [of saturated, seasonally ponded, and tidal freshwater to brackish wetlands]
......4 Plant annual, from fibrous roots, 0.5-7.5 dm tall; corollas 7.5-21 mm long.
........5 Pedicels usually longer than or equaling the leaflike bracts; corollas 12-21 mm long; anther cells 1.8-2.3 mm long, usually long-lanose; filaments lanate; calyx lobes divergent; [of Princess Anne County, VA, southward]
........5 Pedicels usually less than or equaling the leaflike bracts; corollas 7.5-12 mm long; anther cells 1.3-1.8 mm long, glabrous or somewhat pubescent; filaments glabrous or nearly so; calyx lobes erect; [of the Delmarva Peninsula northward]
....3 Leaves filiform, membranous, or stiff; upper leaf surfaces distinctly or minutely scabrous; [a wide range of habitats, including wetlands].
..........6 Lower corolla lobes glabrous on the outer surface; calyx lobes (1.5-) 2-8 mm long, narrowly triangular to lanceolate, 1.5-4× as long as wide.
............ 7 Leaves linear to filiform (never cleft), 0.4-1.5 (-2) mm wide; leaf surfaces scabrous; axillary fascicles well-developed; pedicels 4-20 mm long; [s. IL, s. MO, e. OK and northwestwards]
............ 7 Leaves narrowly lanceolate to elliptic-lanceolate, sometimes the lowest 3-cleft, 2-6 (-7) mm wide; leaf surfaces scabridulous to slightly scabrous; axillary fascicles absent, rarely present; pedicels 1-5 (-6) mm; [MO and KS south to s. LA and s. TX; disjunct east of the Mississippi River in w. TN, and the Black Belt of AL and MS]
..........6 Lower corolla lobes pilose on the outer surface; calyx lobes 0.3-3 (-5) mm long, deltate to broadly lanceolate, 0.8-2× as long as wide.
............ ..8 Pedicels shorter than the subtending bract.
............ ....9 Upper corolla lobes projecting prominently over the upper anthers; inner surface of corolla throat glabrous across the bases of the upper lobes; pedicels 6-25 mm long
............ ....9 Upper corolla lobes spreading to reflexed, not or slightly projected past the throat; inner surface of corolla throat villous across the bases of the upper lobes; pedicels 0.5-8 mm long.
............ ......10 Axillary leaf fascicles well-developed, shorter than or roughly equal to the subtending leaves.
............ ........11 Corollas 22-36 mm long; leaves 15-40 (-50) mm long; styles 14-22 mm long; plants (1-) 5-20 dm tall; [widespread in our region]
............ ........11 Corollas 12-14 mm long; leaves 10-15 (-20) mm long; styles 4-7.7 mm long; plants 2-4 (-5) dm tall; [Coastal Plain of GA, s. AL, and n. FL]
............ ......10 Axillary leaf fascicles absent or shorter than the subtending leaves.
............ ..........12 Leaves filiform, 0.2-0.8 mm wide; flowers 1 per node, the uppermost on each branch appearing terminal
............ ..........12 Leaves filiform to linear-lanceolate, 0.6-4 (-5) mm wide; flowers 1-2 per node.
............ ............ 13 Leaves 0.5-1.4 mm wide; calyx lobes keeled; seeds black; corollas 15-23 mm long
............ ............ 13 Leaves 0.5-4 (-5) mm wide; calyx lobes rounded on the back; seeds dark brown; corollas 9-36 mm long.
............ ............ ..14 Corollas 9-20 (-23) mm long; corolla lobes 2.5-5 (-6) mm long; anthers of upper stamens oblique or parallel to the filaments; pollen sacs 1.4-2.0 mm long; [NJ, PA, IN, IL, VA? northwards].
............ ............ ....15 Anthers sparsely pubescent with brown or white hairs; corolla 10-17 mm long, the lobes ascending or spreading-ascending; style 6-8 mm long
............ ............ ....15 Anthers densely pubescent with white hairs; corolla 15-20 (-23) mm long, the lobes spreading; style 7-10 mm long
............ ............ ..14 Corollas 18-36 mm long; corolla lobes (4-) 5-11 mm long; anthers of upper stamens perpendicular to the filaments; pollen sacs 2.5-3.5 mm long; [widespread]
............ ............ ......16 Branches spreading or ascending; stems more-or-less scabridulous; corollas 18-38 mm long
............ ............ ......16 Branches virgate; stems glabrous; corollas 20-25 mm long
............ ..8 Pedicels longer than or equal to the subtending bract.
............ ............ ........17 Leaves (all) 0.5-3 mm long.
............ ............ ..........18 Inflorescence a raceme (or with several branches), the flowers borne all along the axes; branches stiff and straight, ascending, quadrangular in cross-section; [NC to n. FL, west to e. LA]
............ ............ ..........18 Inflorescence a diffuse panicle, with flowers borne in 1’s (or 2’s or 3’s) at the ends of long branches; branches lax, initially spreading, then curving upwards, nearly terete in cross-section; [e. GA south to c. FL peninsula, west to w. LA]
............ ............ ........17 Leaves (1-) 4-70 mm long, at least some leaves > 4 mm long.
............ ............ ............ 19 Outer surface of the lower corolla lobes pilose.
............ ............ ............ ..20 Leaves alternate; axillary leaf fascicles equal to or longer than the subtending leaves
............ ............ ............ ..20 Leaves opposite; axillary leaf fascicles absent or shorter than the subtending leaves.
............ ............ ............ ....21 Upper corolla lobes projecting prominently over the upper anthers; inner surface of corolla throat glabrous across the bases of the upper lobes; leaves 0.3-6 mm wide; seeds tan to brown
............ ............ ............ ....21 Upper corolla lobes spreading to reflexed, not or slightly projected past the throat; inner surface of corolla throat villous across the bases of the upper lobes; leaves 0.2-1.4 (-1.5) mm wide; seeds black or yellowish tan.
............ ............ ............ ......22 Flowers 2 per node; inflorescences racemes; capsules elliptic-ovoid
............ ............ ............ ......22 Flowers 1 per node; inflorescences racemes or panicles; capsules globular-ovoid.
............ ............ ............ ........23 Seeds yellowish tan, 0.7-1.2 mm long; pedicels spreading-ascending; [inland provinces, OH, KY, TN, n. AL westwards]
............ ............ ............ ........23 Seeds black, 0.4-0.7 mm long; pedicels widely spreading; [Coastal Plain, SC to FL]
............ ............ ............ 19 Outer surface of the lower corolla lobes glabrous.
............ ............ ............ ..........24 Pedicels scabrous; axillary leaf fascicles usually present and > 1/2 the length of the subtending leaves (sometimes absent).
............ ............ ............ ............ 25 Corolla lobes unequal in length, 2-6 mm long; upper corolla lobes arched over the anthers; calyx lobes triangular-subulate, recurved, 0.6-1.5 mm long; [Coastal Plain and Interior Highlands, w. MS, AR, LA, OK, and TX]
............ ............ ............ ............ 25 Corolla lobes equal in length, 6-12 mm long; upper corolla lobes spreading; calyx lobes subulate, erect, 0.1-0.6 mm long; [strictly Coastal Plain, GA and Panhandle FL west to e. TX]
............ ............ ............ ..........24 Pedicels glabrous or ± scabridulous; leaf axillary fascicles absent or shorter than the subtending leaves.
............ ............ ............ ............ ..26 Corolla throats glabrous externally, sometimes pilose externally proximal to sinuses.
............ ............ ............ ............ ....27 Calyx tube 1.5-3 mm long; calyx lobes 0.1-0.5 mm, deltate; capsules 3-5 mm long; styles 6-9 (-10) mm long; branches widely spreading; [Coastal Plain, e. SC south to n. peninsular FL, west to s. AL]
............ ............ ............ ............ ....27 Calyx tube 3-5.5 mm long; calyx lobes 0.4-2.5 mm long, triangular-subulate to subulate or triangular-lanceolate; capsules 5-8 mm long; styles 12-17 mm long; branches ascending-spreading; [TX].
............ ............ ............ ............ ......28 Leaf blades filiform to narrowly linear; corolla lobes unequal, the upper arched over the anthers; calyx lobes triangular-subulate to subulate, 0.4-0.8 (-1.3) mm long; [barely entering our area in c. TX]
............ ............ ............ ............ ......28 Leaf blades linear; corolla lobes equal, the upper erect to spreading; calyx lobes triangular-lanceolate, 0.8-2.5 mm long; [e. and s. TX]
............ ............ ............ ............ ..26 Corolla throats pilose externally.
............ ............ ............ ............ ........29 Lower and mid stem leaves reflexed or recurved; anthers 2-3.8 mm long; styles 11-16.5 mm long; inner surface of corolla throat glabrous across the bases of the upper corolla lobes, sparsely villous at the sinus between them; [West Gulf Coastal Plain of w. LA and e. TX].
............ ............ ............ ............ ..........30 Calyces hemispheric-campanulate; inflorescences racemes; corollas 17-30 mm long
............ ............ ............ ............ ..........30 Calyces funnelform-obconic; inflorescences racemiform-paniculate; corollas 15-24 mm long
............ ............ ............ ............ ........29 Leaves erect to spreading; anthers 0.6-2.6 mm long; styles 3-12 mm long; inner surface of corolla throat villous across the bases and the sinus of the upper corolla lobes; [collectively more widespread].
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ 31 Lower and mid stem branches stiffly arching-ascending, ascending, erect-ascending, or spreading-ascending; branches quadrangular in cross-section; capsules globular to oblong; leaves erect, erect-ascending, or ascending, or the lower slightly spreading.
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ..32 Leaf blades subulate, elliptic, or filiform; anthers 1.8-2.6 mm long; corollas 15-25 mm long, pink to dark pink, with 2 yellow lines and red spots present in the floor of the throat; corolla lobes 4-7 (-9) mm long
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ..32 Leaf blades linear-elliptic, narrowly spatulate, linear-spatulate, or linear; anthers 0.6-2.1 mm long; corollas 8-16 (-17) mm long, whitish to pink, with 2 yellow lines and red or pink spots pale or absent in the floor of the throat; corolla lobes 3-5 mm long.
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ....33 Calyx lobes deltate, 0.2-0.5 mm long; leaf blades linear-elliptic to narrowly spatulate; anthers 1.5-2.1 mm long; stems 3-8 (-10) dm tall; [DE and MD south to s. FL, west to LA, mainly Coastal Plain and adjacent inland provinces]
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ....33 Calyx lobes triangular-subulate, 0.3-1.2 mm long; leaf blades linear; anthers 0.6-1.2 mm long; stems 1-5 (-6) dm tall; [mainly OH, KY, TN, and MS northwards and westwards]
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ 31 Lower and mid stem branches spreading-ascending to laxly and widely spreading; branches subterete to quadrangular-ridged in cross-section; capsules ovoid, obovoid-oblong, ovoid-globular, or obovoid; leaves spreading to spreading-ascending.
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ......34 Calyx lobes subulate to triangular or lanceolate, (0.2-) 0.5-2.5 mm long.
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ........35 Branches ascending to spreading, quadrangular-ridged; capsules ovoid; calyx lobes subulate to triangular, (0.2-) 0.5-1.5 (-2) mm long; styles (5-) 7-12 mm long; [MS, TN, and KY eastwards]
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ........35 Branches laxly and widely spreading, proximal arching upward, strongly quadrangular; capsules obovoid; calyx lobes lanceolate, 1.3-2.5 mm long; styles 3-5 mm long; MO, AR, and MO west to e. OK and se. TX]
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ......34 Calyx lobes deltate-subulate or subulate, 0.2-0.5 mm long.
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ..........36 Corolla lobes 3-4.5 mm long; anthers 1.2-1.8 mm long; styles 5-7 mm long; leaf blades linear to linear-spatulate; capsules obovoid-oblong; mature seeds golden brown
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ..........36 Corolla lobes 4-7.3 mm long; anthers 1.7-2.5 mm long; styles 7-9 mm long; leaf blades filiform to linear-filiform; capsules ovoid-globular; mature seeds yellow