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Key to Crataegus, Key A: hawthorns with leaf blades widest below midpoint;
blade bases subcordate, truncate, rounded, or abruptly contracted

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1 Primary lateral veins of lobed leaves run to sinuses between lobes as well as to points of lobes, in some or most leaves [see also Crataegus viridis].
..2 Leaves usually pubescent or villous abaxially or on petiole, especially when young; inflorescence hairy (villous, pubescent or tomentose).
....3 Styles usually 2; fruit < 9 mm broad, usually oval or elliptic in shape; [widespread species]
....3 Styles 3 to 5; fruit > 9 mm broad, subglobose; [rare Arkansas endemic nothospecies]
......4 Short-shoot leaf blades 2-3 cm long, often broad as long
......4 Short-shoot leaf blades 3-4 cm long, longer than broad
..2 Leaves and inflorescence glabrous [commonly cultivated species]
........5 Leaf lobes with few serrations; pyrene 1 per fruit; thorns usually 1-2 cm long; [exotic]
........5 Leaf lobes with numerous serrations; pyrenes 5 per fruit; thorns usually 3-5 cm long; [native]
1 Primary lateral veins of lobed leaves run only to lobe points, excepting on vigorous sprouts.
..........6 Sepals foliaceous, equal or exceeding petal length in flower and persistent on fruit
..........6 Sepals not foliaceous, much shorter than petals.
............ 7 Leaves abaxially with whitish hair tufts in proximal main vein axils, especially in spring; [Virides series and hybrids].
............ ..8 Leaves mostly ovate-lanceolate to elliptic, bases cuneate.
............ ....9 Leaves and inflorescences pubescent
............ ....9 Leaves glabrous, except for hair tufts.
............ ......10 Leaves predominately elliptic or rhomboid
............ ..8 Leaves often ovate to rhomboid or suborbicular, bases cuneate or rounded.
............ ........11 Leaves glabrous except for hair tufts; most leaves ovate, unlobed, rounded at base
............ ........11 Leaves pubescent, particularly when young; leaves ovate or rhomboid, often lobed, bases cuneate; [interserial hybrids].
............ ..........12 Leaves most pubescent adaxially, teeth and lobes sharp; sepals glandular-serrate
............ ..........12 Leaves most pubescent abaxially; teeth and lobes subacute; sepals subentire.
............ ............ 13 Inflorescence glabrous or glabrate; anthers pink or reddish.
............ ............ ..14 Young leaves densely pubescent; leaves moderately lobed 10-25% to midrib
............ ............ ..14 Young leaves slightly pubescent; leaves shallowly lobed 10% to midrib
............ ............ 13 Inflorescence pubescent or villous; anthers white or yellowish.
............ ............ ....15 Terminal shoot leaves ovate or rhomboid, lobed 20-50% to midrib
............ ............ ....15 Terminal shoot leaves often suborbicular, lobed 20% or less to midrib.
............ ............ ......16 Terminal shoot leaves slightly lobed; inflorescence villous
............ ............ ......16 Terminal shoot leaves often unlobed; inflorescence pubescent
............ 7 Leaves lacking hair tufts; hairs, if present, dispersed over veins or surface of leaves.
............ ............ ........17 Leaves abaxially pubescent, veins tomentose; petiole stout, pubescent, eglandular; inflorescence tomentose; [Molles series]
............ ............ ..........18 Anthers pink or reddish.
............ ............ ............ 19 Anthers <1.5 mm long; fruit flesh dense; [rare Missouri endemic]
............ ............ ............ 19 Anthers 1.5-3 mm long; fruit usually soft-fleshed when mature; [widespread in southern Midwest]
............ ............ ..........18 Anthers white or yellowish.
............ ............ ............ ..20 Leaves barely lobed (5-10 % to midrib), base rounded or broadly cuneate
............ ............ ............ ..20 Leaves moderately lobed (10-25 % to midrib), base truncate or subcordate on terminal shoots.
............ ............ ............ ....21 Fruit usually red; leaves plane; [widespread species]
............ ............ ............ ....21 Fruit usually yellow; leaves cupped; [east Texas endemic]
............ ............ ........17 Leaves variously pubescent or glabrous; petiole typically glandular, particularly in spring; inflorescence pubescent or glabrous.
............ ............ ............ ......22 Leaf blades on terminal shoots commonly 8-12 cm long.
............ ............ ............ ........23 Inflorescence densely pubescent.
............ ............ ............ ..........24 Leaf base usually truncate; anthers pinkish; habit arborescent
............ ............ ............ ..........24 Leaf base often broadly cuneate; anthers white or ivory; habit usually shrubby
............ ............ ............ ........23 Inflorescence slightly pubescent or glabrous.
............ ............ ............ ............ 25 Leaf blades often wide as long; stamens usually 20; petiolar glands stalked; sepals pectinate
............ ............ ............ ............ 25 Leaf blades longer than broad; stamens 5-10; petiolar glands sessile, small or sparse; sepals glandular-serrate.
............ ............ ............ ............ ..26 Sepals evenly glandular-serrate; fruit subglobose
............ ............ ............ ............ ..26 Sepals irregularly glandular-serrate; fruit oblong
............ ............ ............ ......22 Leaf blades on terminal shoots usually < 8 cm long.
............ ............ ............ ............ ....27 Petiole distinctly villous or pubescent, particularly early in growing season.
............ ............ ............ ............ ......28 Pyrenes usually 2 or 3, concave or pitted on inner sides; [interserial hybrids].
............ ............ ............ ............ ........29 Leaves scabrate adaxially when young; stamens 7-10; [northern taxa rare in SE]
............ ............ ............ ............ ........29 Leaves pubescent to villous; stamens 10 or 20; [Crataegus calpodendron hybrid endemics of MO and AR]
............ ............ ............ ............ ......28 Pyrenes usually 4 or 5, plane on inner sides.
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ 31 Terminal shoot leaves ovate or tending toward oval or suborbicular, unlobed or very shallowly lobed.
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ..32 Petiole eglandular or remotely glandular, unwinged for most of its length; [Molles interserial hybrids]
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ....33 Leaves mostly ovate, shallowly lobed 10-20% to midrib; fruit 8-10 mm
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ....33 Leaves mostly oval or suborbicular, unlobed or lobed to 10% to midrib; fruit 10-18 mm
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ..32 Petiole with several conspicuous stalked glands, winged near half its length.
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ......34 Terminal shoot leaves suborbicular, mostly unlobed; inflorescence >10-flowered
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ......34 Terminal shoot leaves very shallowly lobed; inflorescence 3- to 8-flowered
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ 31 Terminal shoot leaves broadly ovate or deltate, often lobed 20% or more to midrib.
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ........35 Sepals partly glandular-serrate or subentire; leaves often deltate.
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ..........36 Leaves often broad as long, densely villous adaxially in spring; [AR endemic]
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ..........36 Leaves longer than broad, sparsely villous adaxially in spring; [widespread taxa].
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ........35 Sepals deeply gland-toothed or pectinate; most leaves ovate.
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ....39 Leaves mostly 2-3 cm long; anthers reddish; calyx near sessile on fruit
............ ............ ............ ............ ....27 Petiole glabrous, or at most only sparsely hairy in spring
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ........41 Terminal shoot leaves commonly deltate; petiole length often 50-75% as long as blade
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ..........42 Leaves adaxially minutely strigose when young, abaxially glabrous
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ..44 Flesh of mature fruit dense or hard; [northern taxa rare in Southeast].
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ....45 Terminal shoot leaves incised 25-50% to midrib, distal 2 or 3 lobe tips alligned
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ....45 Terminal shoot leaves incised 10-30% to midrib, distal lobe tips convex in outline
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ..44 Flesh of mature fruit soft, succulent; [taxa widely distributed in Southeast]
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ..........42 Leaves adaxially glabrous or remotely pubescent or strigose on veins of both surfaces
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ........41 Terminal shoot leaves mostly ovate or near rhombic; petiole length mostly 30-50 % as long as blade.
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ....57 Petiole remotely glandular in spring; sepals remotely glandular-serrate or subentire; [Pruinosae series]
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ......58 Leaves sharply or coarsely toothed and lobed; petiole usually < 2/3 as long as blade
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ....57 Petiole distinctly and persistently glandular; sepals distinctly glandular-serrate.
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