Flora of the Southeastern United States
2022 Edition

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Key to Coreopsis

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1 Disk flowers with 4 corolla lobes and 4 anthers; ray flowers usually apically 3-lobed.
..2 Leaves pinnately or bipinnately lobed into linear segments or narrowly lanceolate segments; [section Calliopsis]
..2 Leaves simple or with 1-2 auriculate lobes at the base; [section Eublepharis].
....3 All of the major cauline leaves opposite (except in C. linifolia the lowermost few leaves may be alternate).
......4 Ray flowers pink (white); plant rhizomatous
......4 Ray flowers yellow; plant fibrous-rooted.
........5 Leaf blades ovate (to elliptical), very gradually reduced upward, margins ciliolate, surfaces lacking tiny dark dots; achenes about 5 mm long; [se. SC south to Panhandle FL]
........5 Leaf blades linear-oblanceolate to linear, rapidly reduced upward, margins glabrous, surfaces with numerous tiny dark dots (easiest to see on undersurface); achenes < 2.5 mm long; [se. VA south to ne. and Panhandle FL, west to e. TX]
....3 All of the major cauline leaves alternate.
..........6 Ray flowers pink; leaves juncoid (linear-terete)
..........6 Ray flowers yellow; leaves with an expanded blade.
............7 Outer phyllaries deltoid and very short, less than 0.3× as long as the inner phyllaries; flowering late Sep-Jan; [endemic to FL]
............7 Outer phyllaries lanceolate, 0.4-0.8× as long as the inner phyllaries; flowering early May-early Nov; [collectively widespread].
..............8 Basal/lower leaves (at least 4 nodes) absent at anthesis; mid-cauline leaves linear to linear-lanceolate, or broadly to narrowly elliptical; achene awns 0.2-1.0 mm long; flowering Sep-Oct; [swamp forests and streamside openings, fresh-tidal creek margins]; [from se. NC south to n. FL].
................9 Leaves 8-15+ cm long, 2-7 mm wide, the blades linear to linear-oblanceolate, 20-50× as long as wide; achene awns 0.2-0.4 mm long
................9 Leaves 4-15 cm long, 10-45 mm wide, the blades broadly to narrowly elliptical, 5-15× as long as wide; achene awns 0.7-1.0 mm long
..............8 Basal/lower leaves present at anthesis; leaves rapidly reduced upward such that mid-cauline leaves are narrow or slender; achene awns 0.5-1.5 mm long; flowering early May-early Nov; [wet savannas, seepage slopes, pitcher-plant bogs, streamhead ecotones, pocosin ecotones]; [collectively more widespread].
..................10 Leaves (at least one major leaf per plant) with 1-few slender lobes near the base (rarely no lobed leaves present or at least readily visible); achene wing broad, > 3/4 the width of the achene body; achene awns averaging 0.5 mm; leaf texture firm but not thick and leathery; flowering early May-early Jul; [se. VA south to e. GA]
..................10 Leaves without basal lobes; achene wing narrow, < ½ the width of the achene body; achene awns averaging 1.5 mm long; leaf texture thick and leathery; flowering mid Aug-early Nov; [se. NC south to c. FL and west to s. MS; also rarely inland in GA, NC, SC, off the Coastal Plain]
1 Disk flowers with 5 corolla lobes and 5 anthers; ray flowers apically entire, or with (2-) 4-5 teeth.
....................11 All of the leaves simple or the plant with a mixture of simple leaves and leaves with 1-2 (-4) basal auricles or leaflets, these distinctly smaller than the terminal lobe or leaflet.
......................12 Leaves all simple, 4-12 cm wide, the margins coarsely serrate (some of the lower leaves sometimes pinnately lacerate basally); [section Silphidium]
......................12 Leaves simple, usually (but not always) some of the leaves on a plant with basal auricles or lobes, the leaf blades (or terminal leaflets) 0.5-3.5 cm wide, the margins entire; [section Coreopsis].
........................13 Stems with (5-) 6-12 nodes between the first node > 1 cm above the basal leaves and the first head.
..........................14 Leaf blades (or terminal leaflets of compound leaves) narrowly oblanceolate, to 0.6 cm wide.
..........................14 Leaf blades (or terminal leaflets of compound leaves( elliptical to oblanceolate, 0.6-4 cm wide.
............................15 Leaf blades (or terminal leaflets of compound leaves) more or less broadly elliptical, ca. 1.5-4 cm wide, acute; stem (and often also the leaves) rather densely hairy (to glabrate)
............................15 Leaf blades (or terminal leaflets of compound leaves) narrowly elliptical to oblanceolate, ca. 0.6-2 cm wide, acuminate; stem and leaves glabrous
........................13 Stems with 1-5 (-8) nodes between the first node > 1 cm above the basal leaves and the first head.
..............................16 Annual; rays yellow, with a red-brown or purple blaze or spotting near the base.
................................17 Leaves extending >1/2 way up the stem; bracts subtending the phyllaries 6-9 (-12) mm long; disc corollas with apices red-brown to purplish; cypselas wingless
................................17 Leaves extending <1/2 way up the stem; bracts subtending the phyllaries 4-6 (-8) mm long; disc corollas with apices yellow; cypselas winged
..............................16 Perennial (cormose or rhizomatous at base, and sometimes also stoloniferous); rays completely yellow, lacking a red-brown or purple blaze or spotting near the base.
..................................18 Plants spreading by elongate stolons; leaf blades (or terminal leaflets) 1-2.2× as long as wide
..................................18 Plants lacking stolons; leaf blades (or terminal leaflets) > 3× as long as wide (basal leaves sometimes broader).
....................................19 Leaves oblanceolate, infolded, only very rarely with basal lobes, 15-30× as long as wide; leaf surfaces completely glabrous; [endemic to calcareous glades of Jackson County, FL]
....................................19 Leaves oblanceolate, not notably infolded, the larger often with basal lobes; leaf surfaces shortly pubescent at least along the veins; [widespread in our area]
....................11 Most or all of the leaves deeply lobed or dissected into distinct leaflets or divisions, the leaflets or divisions 3-20 or more, if only 3, then the lateral leaflets nearly or fully as large and well-developed as the terminal.
......................................20 Leaves pinnately lobed into 3 (-5+) nearly parallel-sided lobes; [section Gyrophyllum].
......................................20 Leaves compound with 3+ leaflets.
........................................21 Leaves sessile or with a short subpetiolar base < 2 mm long, the initial division of the leaves palmate into 3 leaflets (these sometimes further divided), giving the 2 opposite leaves the superficial appearance of a whorl of 6 leaves; [section Gyrophyllum].
..........................................22 Leaves palmately 3-foliolate (rarely the leaves, especially the upper, simple, or with lower leaves 3-foliolate with the middle leaflet 2- or 3-lobed), the total number of leaflets or divisions thus (1-) 3 (-5), the middle leaflet of median leaves (2-) 5-30 mm wide
..........................................22 Leaves palmately compound, the leaflets simple to lobed or pinnatifid, the total number of leaflets or divisions (3-) 5-25, the middle leaflet of median leaves 0.5-7 mm wide.
............................................23 Leaflets usually lobed (rarely simple), the total number of leaflets or divisions (3-) 5-11 (-15) per leaf, the segments of median leaves (1.5-) 2-7 (-9) mm wide
............................................23 Leaflets pinnatifid, the total number of leaflets or divisions 11-25 or more per leaf, the segments of median leaves 0.2-2 (-2.5+) mm wide.
..............................................24 Midstem internodes 8-12 (-16) mm long; ultimate leaf lobes 1.0-1.5 (-2.5+) mm wide
..............................................24 Midstem internodes 15-40 (-60) mm long; ultimate leaf lobes 0.5-1.0 (-2.0) mm wide
........................................21 Leaves, at least the lower, distinctly petioled on petioles 5-50 mm or more long.
................................................25 Ray flowers not toothed terminally (or rarely with a few with inconspicuous and irregular teeth); mid-cauline leaves palmately 3-foliolate, the terminal leaflet sometimes again 3-5-foliolate (sometimes giving an appearance of a pinnately 5-7-foliolate leaf), the leaflets 6-35 mm wide, 3-15× as long as wide; [section Gyrophyllum]
................................................25 Ray flowers apically with (2-) 4-5 teeth; mid-cauline leaves pinnately 5-11-foliolate, the leaflets either 3-15 mm wide and about 1-3× as long as wide, or 0.5-2 mm wide and > 20× as long as wide; [section Coreopsis].
..................................................26 Disk flowers reddish; ray flowers usually with a basal red mark; leaflets of mid-cauline leaves 1-15 mm wide and about 1-10× as long as wide
....................................................27 Terminal leaflets of mid-cauline leaves 5-15 mm wide, < 3× as long as wide; [mainly sandy soils or in disturbed situations east of the Mississippi River]
....................................................27 Leaflets of mid-cauline leaves 1-3 mm wide, 3-8× as long as wide; [mainly calcareous soils, in TX]
..................................................26 Disk flowers yellow; ray flowers yellow; leaflets of mid-cauline leaves 0.5-6 (-10) mm wide and > 10× as long as wide.
......................................................28 Achene wings fimbriate; [of granitic outcrops of the Piedmont of GA and AL]
......................................................28 Achene wings entire; [collectively more widespread].
........................................................29 Divisions of the midstem and upper cauline leaves with 1-3 divisions; plants reclining; flowering late Jun-Jul; [of dolomite glades in c. AL]
........................................................29 Divisions of the midstem and upper cauline leaves with > 5 divisions; plants erect; flowering May-late Jun; [of granite outcrops and disturbed areas].
..........................................................30 Larger divisions of midstem and upper stem leaves 2-6 (-10) mm wide
..........................................................30 Larger divisions of midstem and upper stem leaves 0.5-1.5 mm wide