Flora of the Southeastern United States
2022 Edition

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Key to Hieracium

1 Cypselas 1-2.5 mm long; pappus of 25-40+ white to sordid bristles, in 1 series; plants stoloniferous (cespitose in a few species); corollas yellow or orange
1 Cypselas (2-) 2.5-7 mm long; pappus of (30-) 40-80 white, tan, or sordid bristles, in 1-2+ series; plants cespitose; corollas yellow.
..2 Leaves primarily cauline, the largest leaves definitely on the stem, basal leaves usually absent.
....3 Florets 8-20 (-30) per head; leaves nearly glabrous, or with a few long hairs on the lower surface; upper stem glabrous
....3 Florets 30-110 per head; leaves setose, with long hairs on the upper and lower surfaces; upper stem stipitate-glandular, stellate-pubescent, or glabrous.
......4 Leaves with entire margins, rounded to obtuse at the tip; [widespread in our area]
......4 Leaves with toothed to laciniate margins, acute to obtuse at the tip
........5 Leaves 2-4× as long as wide; [alien, mainly in disturbed situations]
........5 Leaves (3-) 5-10 (-15)× as long as wide; [disjunct at high elevations in WV]
..2 Leaves primarily basal, the largest leaves basal, leaves in some species extending onto the lower portion of the stem.
..........6 Leaves purple-veined (when fresh).
............ 7 Lower stem strongly pilose; leaves weakly purple-veined
............ 7 Lower stem glabrous or nearly so; leaves strongly purple-veined
..........6 Leaves not purple-veined.
............ ..8 Inflorescence a narrow to broad panicle.
............ ....9 Cypselas truncate, broadest at the tip; flowers 40-100 per head
............ ....9 Cypselas narrowed to the tip; flowers 20-40 per head
............ ......10 Hairs of the lower stem 1-4 mm long; inflorescence 2-4× as long as wide; [widespread in our area]
............ ......10 Hairs of the lower stem 6-15 mm long; inflorescence 4-7× as long as wide; [of KY and TN westward]
............ ..8 Inflorescence corymbiform.
............ ........11 Leaves prominently mottled or blotched with brownish purple
............ ........11 Leaves green.
............ ..........12 Leaf bases of basal leaf blades truncate to cordate; reproductive stems with 0-2 leaves
............ ..........12 Leaf bases of basal leaf blades cuneate; reproductive stems with 2-10 leaves.
............ ............ 13 Cypselas 2-3.5 mm long, truncate, broadest at the tip or along the length; flowers 40-100 per head
............ ............ 13 Cypselas 2.2-5 mm long, at least the longer achenes narrowed to the tip; flowers 15-40 per head.
............ ............ ..14 Stem with several well-developed leaves slightly smaller than the basal leaves; inflorescence corymbiform or tending toward paniculate.
............ ............ ....15 Involucre mostly 6-9 mm high; inflorescence generally elongate and cylindric (appearing corymbiform in depauperate individuals); achenes 2.5-4 mm long; corollas 8-9 mm long
............ ............ ....15 Involucre mostly 8-11 mm high; inflorescence broadly corymbiform; achenes 3.5-5 mm long; corollas 10-13 mm long
............ ............ ..14 Stem leafless, or with only a few leaves distinctly smaller than the basal leaves; inflorescence strongly corymbiform.
............ ............ ......16 Involucre glabrous or with short stipitate glands, but lacking long setae (either gland-tipped or glandless)
............ ............ ......16 Involucre with long setae (either gland-tipped or glandless).
............ ............ ........17 Involucral setae gland-tipped; [of the Coastal Plain]
............ ............ ........17 Involucral setae not gland-tipped (but with shorter gland-tipped hairs); [of the Mountains (and Piedmont?) of VA]