Flora of the Southeastern United States
2022 Edition

Colors

Data mode

Key A: goldenrods and similar genera with corymbiform inflorescences
(Bigelowia, section Ptarmicoidei, and section Solidago, subsection Multiradiatae) (clone)

1 Plant a woody shrub; leaves with a markedly pebbled surface
1 Plant an herb; leaves variously smooth or rugose, but not pebbled.
..2 Inflorescence flat-topped; disk flowers 2-12, usually fewer than the ray flowers
..2 Inflorescence corymbose (rounded); disk flowers 17-60, more than the ray flowers.
....3 Rays white; leaves linear-lanceolate to linear-oblanceolate, the longer (10-) 15-20× as long as wide; pappus bristles slightly to strongly clavellate-thickened; [Solidago sect. Ptarmicoideae]
....3 Rays yellow; leaves oblong, elliptic, obovate, or spatulate, 2-8× as long as wide; pappus bristles not clavellate thickened.
......4 Larger leaves obovate, 5-10 cm long, 1.5-4 cm wide, with prominent teeth; plants small, 0.5-4 dm tall; [high elevation rock outcrops on Grandfather Mountain, Roan Mountain, and Hanging Rock Mountain (Avery, Watauga, and Mitchell counties, NC)]; [section Solidago, subsection Multiradiatae]
......4 Larger leaves elliptic-oblong, linear, or lanceolate, 6-25 cm long, 0.1-10 cm wide, with small, obscure teeth; plants more robust, 4-15 dm tall; [of low elevations]; [Solidago sect. Ptarmicoideae]
........5 Leaves of the midstem 1-7 mm wide, 10-20× as long as wide; ray flowers 1-4/head, disk flowers 7-13/head; [AR, OK, MS, LA, and TX]
........5 Leaves of the midstem 8-20 mm wide, 2-12× as long as wide; ray flowers 6-14/head; disk flowers 6-35/head; [collectively widespread].
..........6 Leaves of the midstem 8-12 mm wide, 4-12× as long as wide; leaf surfaces, stems, and peduncles glabrous; [marshes, swamps, moist to wet prairies, of OH, IN, OL, MO, and AR (allegedly disjunct in nw. GA and e. VA]
............7 Leaves essentially planar, with only the midvein prominent; leaves straight to slightly curved, appressed to ascending
............7 Leaves folded along the midvein (conduplicate, V-shaped in ×-section), with 3-7 veins prominent from the base of the blade; stem leaves strongly recurved away from the stem
..........6 Leaves of the midstem 12-20 mm wide, 2-3.5× as long as wide; leaf surfaces, stems, and peduncles glabrescent to densely pubescent.
..............8 Outer series of phyllaries glabrous on the back (glabrous to short-ciliate on the margin); leaf undersurface glabrous to somewhat hispid (0-20 hairs per square mm) (the margins and midrib beneath often more densely pubescent); stems glabrous to somewhat hispid (0-25 hairs per square mm)
..............8 Outer series of phyllaries pubescent on the back (short-ciliate on the margin); leaf undersurface hispid (7-50 hairs per square mm); stems slightly to strongly hispid (10-70 hairs per square mm)
................9 Pubescence of the stems and leaf surfaces finely and densely hispid-strigose, > 50 hairs per square mm; plants usually 3-7 dm tall; flowering arrays compact; inner phyllaries linear, conspicuously strigillose
................9 Pubescence of the stems and leaf surfaces coarsely hispid, < 50 hairs per square mm; plants 6-15 dm tall; flowering arrays loose, more diffuse; inner phyllaries oblong and with a rounded apex, glabrate or sparsely strigillose