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Key to Solidago, Key O: Key to "erect goldenrods" -- with basally disposed leaves and elongate, cylindrical inflorescences (subgenus Solidago, section Erectae]

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1 Phyllaries very narrow, ca. 0.5 (-0.75) mm wide, linear-lanceolate, very gradually tapering to a pointed or minutely rounded tip; [subgenus Solidago, section Erectae, series Puberulae].
  2 Stems glabrous below and to the mid-stem; rays mostly 6-9; inner phyllaries usually striate with 2 prominent secondary veins
  2 Stems finely hairy throughout with minute strigillose hairs; rays mostly 9-16; inner phyllaries not striate.
    3 Leaves 20-50 (-60) per stem; midstem leaves usually 4-5 cm long; phyllaries attenuate; [Mountains and Piedmont of GA northward, and Coastal Plain from VA northward]
    3 Leaves (20-) 50-120 per stem; midstem leaves usually 1-4 cm long; phyllaries acute to acuminate; [Coastal Plain from DE southward]
1 Phyllaries broader, (0.75-) 1.0-1.5 mm wide at mid-length, ovate to lanceolate, acute to obtuse or broadly rounded; [subgenus Solidago, section Erectae, series Erectae].
      4 Rays yellow (may turn pale yellow with age).
        5 Involucres (6-) avg. 7.2 (-9.5) mm high
        5 Involucres 3.5-6.5 mm high.
          6 Leaves and stems sparsely to densely hairy with long, spreading (to less typically appressed) hairs
          6 Leaves and upper stems glabrous or nearly so, the lower stems often somewhat hairy with short hairs (often feeling slightly scabrous).
             7 Inflorescence thyrsiform, very slender, usually linear in outline but sometimes with a few widely spaced elongate branches; cypsela bodies 2.2-3.0 mm long; ray flowers often pale yellow; [MA to se. IN, south to GA and MS, mostly avoiding the Coastal Plain southward]
             7 Inflorescence panicle-like, usually with several to many ascending branches and ovoid in outline; cypsela bodies 1.1-2.0 mm long; ray florets golden yellow; [MA to GA, west to SD and scattered south from CO to ne. NM].
               8 Mid-stem leaves 0.4-1.5 (-2.0) cm wide; basal leaves 0.8-2.0 cm wide, entire or slightly serrate, present or absent at flowering
               8 Mid-stem leaves usually > 2 cm wide; basal leaves (2.0-) 3.0-5.5 cm wide, coarsely serrate, present at flowering
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