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Keyed in multiple places:

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Key N1: herbaceous dicots with mainly basal, compound leaves

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1 Leaves either 2-3-foliolate or palmately 4-11-foliolate (all the leaflets attached at a common point).
  2 Leaves 2-foliolate; fruit a capsule, opening by a circumscissile lid
  2 Leaves either 3-foliolate or palmately or pedately 4-11-foliolate.
    3 Inflorescence an involucrate head subtended by phyllaries, the heads solitary or many and variously arrayed in secondary inflorescences, the ovary inferior, the corolla connate and tubular at least basally, the calyx absent, the stamens 5, the fruit a cypsela
    3 Inflorescence, flower, and fruit structure various, but not with the combination of features as above.
      4 Inflorescence various, usually not an umbel (sometimes an umbel in Oxalis in OXALIDACEAE); ovary superior; fruit an aggregate, legume, berry, or 2-valved capsule.
        5 Leaflets either entire or barely and very shallowly crenulate or notched at the tip (but otherwise entire).
          6 Inflorescence a spadix, surrounded by a spathe; fruit a berry; [Monocots {illogically keyed here because of the likelihood of being mistaken for a dicot}]
          6 Inflorescence a raceme or umbel, not surrounded by a spathe; fruit a capsule or legume; [Eudicots].
             7 Flowers bilaterally symmetrical; fruit a legume; [plant of uplands]
             7 Flowers radially symmetrical; fruit a 2-valved or 5-valved capsule; [plant of uplands or wetlands]
               8 Leaflets not notched at the tip; flowers white; [plants of saturated saturated or ponded wetlands]
               8 Leaflets notched at the tip; flowers pink, white, or yellow; [plants of uplands or temporarily flooded wetlands]
                 9 Petals 5 or more; stamens 10 or more; fruit either a legume or an aggregate of achenes or follicles
                   10 Stamens many, fused into a staminal tube; carpels 10-20, in a ring; pubescence stellate (sometimes mixed with simple hairs)
                   10 Stamens 10-many, separate, or fused but not all into a staminal tube; carpel either 1 (FABACEAE), or 3-7 in a ring (RANUNCULACEAE), or many and spirally arranged on a conical receptacle (RANUNCULACEAE or ROSACEAE)
                     11 Leaflets serrulate; flowers bilaterally symmetrical; fruit a legume; corolla variously colored, including white
                     11 Leaflets serrate; flowers radially symmetrical; fruit an aggregate of achenes or of follicles; corolla white or yellowish or greenish.
                       12 Fruit an aggregate of achenes (borne on a fleshy, expanded receptacle in Fragaria and some Potentilla)
1 Leaves 1-pinnately compound (all leaflets attached to a central rachis) or more complexly compound (with several orders of branching, some leaflets at least attached to second-order branches from the rachis).
                              15 Inflorescence an involucrate head subtended by phyllaries, the heads solitary or many and variously arrayed in secondary inflorescences, the ovary inferior, the corolla connate and tubular at least basally, the calyx absent, the stamens 5, the fruit a cypsela
                              15 Inflorescence, flower, and fruit structure various, but not with the combination of features as above.
                                16 Flowers radially symmetrical; fruit a silique/silicle, or a schizocarp of mericarps, or an achene.
                                  17 Petals 0 or 5 (if 0, the sepals petaloid); stamens 2, 4, 5, or many.
                            14 Leaves more complexly compound (with 2 or more orders of branching, some leaflets at least attached to second-order branches from the rachis).
                                       19 Inflorescence an involucrate head subtended by phyllaries, the heads solitary or many and variously arrayed in secondary inflorescences, the ovary inferior, the corolla connate and tubular at least basally, the calyx absent, the stamens 5, the fruit a cypsela
                                       19 Inflorescence, flower, and fruit structure various, but not with the combination of features as above (sometimes the flowers in a head subtended by bracts, but then with other features differing, such as stamens 4, or green calyx present, or petals separate, or fruit a schizocarp of mericarps, etc.).
                                         20 Leaf segments or ultimate lobes linear or lanceolate, > 2× as long as wide, < 4 mm wide.
                                             22 Carpels 2, fused; fruit an elongate capsule; flowers bilaterally symmetrical
                                             22 Carpels 5-10 or many, separate; fruit an aggregate; flower radially symmetrical
                                         20 Leaf segments or ultimate lobes ovate or elliptic, < 3× as long as wide, > 5 mm wide.
                                               23 Inflorescence various, but not an umbel; fruit an aggregate of follicles or achenes, an elongate capsule, or a naked seed resembling a drupe.
                                                    25 Leaflets with < 10 ultimate ‘points’ (lobe or tooth terminations), these rounded to broadly acute, often large in comparison to the leaflet and appearing as “sublobes”; pistil 1 or 4-many.
                                                      26 Corolla radially symmetrical; fruit an aggregate of follicles or achenes, or a naked seed resembling a drupe; [native plants of moist to dry forests and rock outcrops].
                                                        27 Leaflets 5-8 cm long, obviously longer than broad; pistil 1; fruit a naked blue seed resembling a drupe; flowers mainly 3-merous
                                                        27 Leaflets 1-6 cm long, about as long as broad if > 4 cm long; pistils 4-many; fruit an aggregate of follicles or achenes; flowers mainly 4-5-merous
                                                    25 Leaflets with >11 ultimate ‘points’ (lobe or tooth terminations), these acuminate to acute; pistils 1-8.
                                                          28 Pubescence of the stem and lower leaf surface glandular; flowers unisexual, on the same plant (monoecious); stamens 10; pistils 2, partly fused; fruit an aggregate of follicles
                                                          28 Pubescence of the stem and lower leaf surface non-glandular (or absent); flowers either bisexual (the plants hermaphroditic), or unisexual and the male and female flowers on separate plants (the plants dioecious); stamens 15 or more; pistils 1-8, separate; fruit an aggregate of follicles, a follicle, or a red or white berry.
                                                            29 Flowers bisexual (plants hermaphroditic); carpels 1-8 per flower; inflorescence a raceme, or a panicle of racemes with just a few branches; fruit an aggregate of follicles, a follicle, or a red or white berry
                                                            29 Flowers unisexual (plants dioecious); carpels 3-4 per pistillate flower; inflorescence a panicle of racemes, with numerous branches; fruit an aggregate of follicles

Key O: herbaceous dicots with alternate, compound leaves on the stem

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1 Leaves either 3-foliolate or palmately 4-11-foliolate (all the leaflets attached at a common point, or the leaflets slightly pedate in Helleborus foetidus in RANUNCULACEAE).
  2 Inflorescence an involucrate head subtended by phyllaries, the heads solitary or many and variously arrayed in secondary inflorescences, the ovary inferior, the corolla connate and tubular at least basally, the calyx absent, the stamens 5, the fruit a cypsela
  2 Inflorescence, flower, and fruit structure various, but not with the combination of features as above. {add under 2b [Cynosciadium] APIACEAE}
    3 Leaflets obviously and sharply serrate; pistils 1 or 5-many; fruit an achene, or an aggregate of achenes, drupelets, or follicles.
      4 Leaflets 7-11, slightly pedate in their arrangement, evergreen
        5 Pistils 5-many; fruit an aggregate of achenes, drupelets, or follicles
    3 Leaflets entire, finely denticulate, or very obscurely toothed (or irregularly serrate or lobed in Cardamine in BRASSICACEAE); pistil 1; fruit simple, a legume, capsule, silique, or berry.
          6 Corolla bilaterally symmetrical; petals 5; fruit a legume; carpel 1
          6 Corolla radially symmetrical; petals 4 or 5; fruit either an elongate capsule or a berry; carpels 1, 2, or 5.
             7 Leaflets radially arranged at the summit of the petiole, not differentiated in size or placement into a terminal leaflet and 2 lateral leaflets; leaflets prominently notched at the apex; petals 5, yellow; inflorescence axillary, cymose or umbelliform; carpels 5
             7 Leaflets differentiated in size and placement into a terminal leaflet and 2 or more lateral leaflets; leaflets not regularly notched at the apex (a few may be slightly retuse); petals 4, white, pink, or yellow; inflorescence terminal and racemose; carpels 1 or 2.
               8 Carpels 2; fruit a red berry; petals connate, purplish-blue
               8 Carpel 1; fruit a capsule; petals separate, white, pink, or yellow.
                 9 Stem leaves 1-3, alternate [or whorled or opposite]; leaflets 3, irregularly serrate, lacerate, or additionally divided or lobed; fruit a silique; carpels 2
                 9 Stem leaves >3, alternate; leaflets (1-) 3-7, each entire or obscurely toothed; fruit a capsule; carpel 1
1 Leaves either 1-pinnately compound (all leaflets attached to a central rachis) or more complexly compound (with several orders of branching, some leaflets at least attached to second-order branches from the rachis).
                   10 Inflorescence an involucrate head subtended by phyllaries, heads solitary or many, variously arrayed in secondary inflorescences; fruit a cypsela; ovary inferior
                   10 Inflorescence various, but not as above; fruit various, not as above; ovary superior.
                     11 Leaves 1-pinnately compound (all leaflets attached to a central rachis).
                       12 Flowers bilaterally symmetrical, papilionaceous; fruit a legume; leaves even-pinnately or odd-pinnately compound, the terminal leaflet sometimes replaced by a tendril; leaflets entire or at most minutely denticulate
                       12 Flowers radially symmetrical (or barely bilaterally symmetrical in Erodium in GERANIACEAE); fruit a capsule, capsular but of 5 mericarps, or an aggregate of achenes, nutlets, or follicles (in some cases the # of pistils from many down to 2 or even 1); leaves odd-pinnately compound, never with tendrils; leaflets serrate (or entire to shallowly lobed in Polemonium in POLEMONIACEAE, Cardamine in BRASSICACEAE, and Floerkea in LIMNANTHACEAE).
                          13 Pistils many (only 1-2 in Agrimonia, Poteridium, Poterium, and Sanguisorba); fruit an aggregate of achenes, nutlets, or follicles; hypanthium present; stamens 5-many (only 4 in Poteridium and Sanguisorba)
                          13 Pistil 1 (or deeply 2-3-lobed in Floerkea in LIMNANTHACEAE); fruit a silique, capsule, schizocarp of 2-3 mericarps, or a capsular schizocarp of 5 mericarps (Erodium in GERANIACEAE); hypanthium absent; stamens 3-6.
                              15 Petals 5, fused (distinct in Erodium in GERANIACEAE); stamens 5; inflorescence axillary or terminal, cymose, consisting of subcapitate, umbel-like, or helicoid cymes; fruit either a capsule, or a capsular schizocarp of 5 mericarps (Erodium in GERANIACEAE).
                                16 Flowers slightly bilaterally symmetrical (2 of the petals of different size than the other 3); fruit a capsular schizocarp of 5 mericarps; carpels 5
                                16 Flowers radially symmetrical; fruit either a loculicidal capsule or a berry; carpels 2 or 3.
                     11 Leaves more complexly compound (with 2 or more orders of branching, some leaflets at least attached to second-order branches from the rachis).
                                       19 Leaves either 2× odd-pinnate or more complexly 2-4× ternately or ternately-pinnately compound; flowers in various inflorescences; fruits various (not legumes or loments).
                                           21 Inflorescence either a terminal solitary flower or terminal raceme or panicle; ovary superior, either of 2 fused carpels or of 1-5or many distinct 1-carpellate pistils; fruit either a capsule or an aggregate of follicles or achenes.
                                             22 Ovary of 1-5or many distinct 1-carpellate pistils; fruit an aggregate of follicles or achenes
                                                 24 Leaflets sharply serrate, with usually many teeth on each leaflet side, the total number of “points” per leaflet > 10.
                                                 24 Leaflets entire, or with 1-several, broad, obtuse, rounded, or broadly acute “sublobes”, especially towards the tip of the leaflet, the total number of “points” per leaflet < 10.
                                                            29 Perianth of 4-5 whorls of 3 parts each (some of the whorls modified into nectaries); pistil 1, 1-carpellate; fruit a drupelike, blue, naked seed; largest leaflets > 6 cm long, obviously longer than wide
                                                            29 Perianth of 1 whorl; of 4-5 parts; pistils many, each 1-carpellate; fruit an aggregate of achenes or an aggregate of follicles; largest leaflets either < 6 cm long, or if longer than 6 cm, also about as wide as long

Key to Brassicaceae, Key A: plants in flower, trichomes of plant absent or, if present, unbranched

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1 Flowers (all, or at least many) solitary on scapes
1 Flowers in racemes.
  2 Flowers yellow.
      4 Upper stems glaucous.
        5 Petals 6-30 mm long, clawed
        5 Petals 2-4 mm long, not clawed
      4 Upper stems green.
          6 Stems angular distally; blooming Apr to early Jun
          6 Stems not angular distally; blooming Apr to Oct
    3 Leaves not clasping at base.
             7 Petals with contrasting dark yellow, brown, maroon, or purple veins; [tribe Brassiceae]
               8 Petals yellow; basal leaves with 3-10 lobes per margin; stems usually sparsely to densely hispid basally; cauline leaf blades usually lobed (but fewer than basal leaves)
               8 Petals yellow or creamy white; basal leaves with 1-4 lobes per margin; stems sparsely to densely pubescent; cauline leaf blades often undivided
             7 Petals mostly uniform in color.
                 9 Ovaries and young fruits 2-segmented; petals 5-30 mm long; [tribe Brassiceae]
                     11 Valves of the fruit 1-veined; sepals erect or ascending (rarely spreading); terminal segment of fruit conic, usually seedless
                     11 Valves of the fruit 3-7-veined (1-veined in Rhamphospermum nigrum); sepals spreading to reflexed; terminal segment of fruit either linear or ensiform (flattened and 2-edged).
                       12 Terminal segment of fruit linear 0.1-1.6 cm long, seedless or 1-seeded.
                       12 Terminal segment of fruit ensiform (flattened and 2-edged), (1-) 1.5-2.5 (-3) cm long, seedless
                 9 Ovaries and young fruits unsegmented; petals 1-8 mm long.
                          13 Inflorescence not bracteate (occasionally with some lower pedicels bearing bracts).
                            14 Stigmas entire, rarely indistinctly 2-lobed; [tribe Cardamineae]
  2 Flowers white, cream, pinkish, purple, lavender, or blue.
                                16 Plants with only basal leaves or cauline leaves much reduced.
                                  17 Plants annual; flowers zygomorphic; petals 0.5-2.5 mm long; [tribe Iberideae]
                                  17 Plants annual or perennial; flowers actinomorphic; petals absent, rudimentary, or to 16 mm long; [tribe Cardamineae]
                                             22 Plants terrestrial, though sometimes growing partially submerged; not rooting at nodes.
                                               23 Flowers blue, rarely pink or white; petals 12-32 mm long; [tribe Brassiceae]
                                               23 Flowers white, sometimes pink or purple; petals <16 mm long.
                                                    25 Cauline leaves simple or pinnately to palmately compound, typically not auriculate; if simple and auriculate, then plants usually with a mix of compound and simple cauline leaves and the simple leaves ovate or oblong and never deeply pinnatifid (as in C. clematitis)
                              15 Leaves basal and cauline but not auriculate (basal leaves sometimes withering upon flowering, thus only appearing alternate).
                                                                     33 Petals 15-30 mm long; fruit conspicuously coin-like, oblong to suborbicular and latiseptate (flattened parallel to septum); [tribe Lunarieae]
                                                                     33 Petals rarely to 20 mm long; fruit ovate to linear (if rounded not strongly flattened like a coin, or if flattened the fruit long and slender as in Warea).
                                                                       34 Inflorescence corymbose; claws (of the petals) strongly differentiated from blades; fruit latiseptate and stipitate, linear in shape; [natives of sandhills and coastal plain, NC to s. MS]
                                                                       34 Inflorescence elongate or corymbose (if so, not also collectively as above); claws differentiated or not from blades; fruit terete, latiseptate, or augustiseptate (flattened perpindicular to septum), stipate or not, linear to ovate in shape; [widespread natives and non-natives]

Key to Brassicaceae, Key C: plants in fruit, trichomes of plant absent or, if present, unbranched

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1 Fruits silicles (< 3× as long as wide).
  2 Fruits 2-segmented
    3 Plants succulent, leaves usually fleshy
    3 Plants herbaceous, not succulent, leaves not fleshy
  2 Fruits unsegmented.
      4 Fruits 2 cm or more wide
      4 Fruits < 2 cm wide.
        5 Fruits with 20 or more seeds
        5 Fruits with 16 or fewer seeds.
          6 Fruits with 1 seed.
          6 Fruits with 2-16 seeds.
               8 Fruits with more than 2 seeds.
                   10 Stems 5-12 (-20) dm tall; leaf blades of basal leaves (3-) 5-12 (-17) cm long
                   10 Stems 0.5-1.5 (-2) dm tall; leaf blades of basal leaves 0.3-1.5 (-2) cm long
                     11 Plants not fetid; seeds usually smooth, yellowish to medium brown
                     11 Plants fetid; seeds striate or alveolate, dark gray to dark brown or black
1 Fruits siliques (> 3× as long as wide).
                       12 Fruits indehiscent or breaking into 1-seeded segments.
                          13 Fruits segmented, usually more than 1-seeded.
                                16 Cauline leaf blade bases auriculate (except B. juncea); terminal silique segment seedless (rarely 1-2-seeded), conic
                                             22 Replums strongly flattened; fruit valves dehiscing elastically, coiled
                                             22 Replums terete or rounded; fruit valves not dehiscing elastically or coiled.
                                                 24 Fruit stipitate; cauline leaves entire, not auriculate; flowers pink to purple (or white in Warea carteri), [natives of sandhills and coastal plain, NC to s. MS]
                                                 24 Fruit sessile or short-stipitate; cauline leaves usually lobed or at least dentate, the bases auriculate or somewhat clasping; flowers yellow; [non-natives, widespread]
                                                      26 Plants terrestrial, though rarely growing partially submersed; not rooting at nodes.
                                                                 31 Cauline leaves usually ascendant and concealing stems (at least basally); petals 2-5 mm long (except for 5-10 mm long in B. missouriensis)
                                                                       34 Basal leaves usually present at flowering or after; cauline leaves with linear, filiform, lyrate, or runcinate lobes (occasionally unlobed, but if so then leaves usually linear or otherwise thin); petals yellow; [non-natives of various habitats]
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