Flora of the Southeastern United States
2022 Edition

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Key to Convolvulaceae

1 Plant parasitic; stems orange; [tribe Cuscuteae)
1 Plant photosynthetic; stems green.
..2 Corolla 0.1-0.2 cm long; capsule deeply 2-lobed; leaves orbicular-reniform, 1-3 cm long and wide, not fleshy; [tribe Dichondreae]
..2 Corolla 1-10 cm long; capsule entire; leaves various, but not as above (most similar vegetatively are Calystegia soldanella, Ipomoea brasiliensis, and Ipomoea imperati, all beach plants with fleshy, emarginate, and usually larger leaves).
....3 Styles 2, free nearly to the ovary or fused most of their length (at least the terminal 1-2 mm free); corolla either 1-2.5 cm long (Evolvulus, Stylisma) or 7-10 cm long (Bonamia); leaves cuneate or rounded at the base, and narrowly ovate, lanceolate, or linear; [tribe Cresseae].
......4 Styles free, each 2-cleft, the stigmas therefore 4, linear-filiform
......4 Styles free or fused at the base, the stigmas 2, globose-peltate.
........5 Flowers 7-10 cm long; leaves ovate, < 2× as long as wide; [FL only, north to Marion County]
........5 Flowers 1-2.5 cm long; leaves narrowly ovate, lanceolate, or linear, > 2× as long as wide; [widespread in our area, primarily in the Coastal Plain]
....3 Styles 1 (sometimes with 2 stigmas, or a bilobed stigma); stigmas capitate, globose, elongate, flattened, or filiform; corolla > 2.5 cm long (except Jacquemontia, Convolvulus, and a few Ipomoea spp.); leaves cordate, sagittate, or truncate at the base, and (mostly) ovate in outline.
..........6 Calyx concealed by 2 large bracts; [tribe Convolvuleae]
..........6 Calyx not concealed by bracts.
............ 7 Outer 3 sepals distinctly wider and longer than the inner sepals (and lacking an attenuated tip).
............ 7 Outer 3 sepals similarly sized to the inner, or if longer then with an attenuated tip.
............ ..8 Stigmas 2, linear or elongate; leaves 2-4 cm long, truncate or weakly hastate at base; corolla white or pink
............ ....9 Stigmas elongate but not linear; [tribe Jacquemontiae]
............ ....9 Stigmas filiform; [tribe Convolvuleae]
............ ..8 Stigma 1, capitate (or sometimes 2-lobed); leaves 3-15 cm long, mostly strongly hastate or cordate at base; corolla white, pink, lavender, blue, yellow, orange, or red.
............ ......10 Anthers straight after dehiscence; fruits valvate-dehiscent; [tribe Ipomoeeae]
............ ......10 Anthers coiled after dehiscence (making 1-4 complete 360 degree turns); fruits longitudinally or irregularly dehiscent; [tribe Merremieae].
............ ........11 Fruit a four-valved capsule; [s. GA and FL to TX in our region]
............ ........11 Fruit an operculate capsule (with a leathery exocarp that falls off like a lid and a brittle endocarp that shatters irregularly); [s. TX only in our region]