Flora of the Southeastern United States
2022 Edition

Colors

Data mode

Account

Login
Sign up

Click the number at the start of a key lead to highlight both that lead and its corresponding lead. Click again to show only the two highlighted leads. Click a third time to return to the full key with the selected leads still highlighted.

X
Keyed in multiple places:

Key to Convolvulaceae

1 Plant parasitic; stems orange; [tribe Cuscuteae)
1 Plant photosynthetic; stems green.
..2 Corolla 0.1-0.2 cm long; capsule deeply 2-lobed; leaves orbicular-reniform, 1-3 cm long and wide, not fleshy; [tribe Dichondreae]
..2 Corolla 1-10 cm long; capsule entire; leaves various, but not as above (most similar vegetatively are Calystegia soldanella, Ipomoea brasiliensis, and Ipomoea imperati, all beach plants with fleshy, emarginate, and usually larger leaves).
....3 Styles 2, free nearly to the ovary or fused most of their length (at least the terminal 1-2 mm free); corolla either 1-2.5 cm long (Evolvulus, Stylisma) or 7-10 cm long (Bonamia); leaves cuneate or rounded at the base, and narrowly ovate, lanceolate, or linear; [tribe Cresseae].
......4 Styles free, each 2-cleft, the stigmas therefore 4, linear-filiform
......4 Styles free or fused at the base, the stigmas 2, globose-peltate.
........5 Flowers 7-10 cm long; leaves ovate, < 2× as long as wide; [FL only, north to Marion County]
........5 Flowers 1-2.5 cm long; leaves narrowly ovate, lanceolate, or linear, > 2× as long as wide; [widespread in our area, primarily in the Coastal Plain]
....3 Styles 1 (sometimes with 2 stigmas, or a bilobed stigma); stigmas capitate, globose, elongate, flattened, or filiform; corolla > 2.5 cm long (except Jacquemontia, Convolvulus, and a few Ipomoea spp.); leaves cordate, sagittate, or truncate at the base, and (mostly) ovate in outline.
..........6 Calyx concealed by 2 large bracts; [tribe Convolvuleae]
..........6 Calyx not concealed by bracts.
............ 7 Outer 3 sepals distinctly wider and longer than the inner sepals (and lacking an attenuated tip).
............ 7 Outer 3 sepals similarly sized to the inner, or if longer then with an attenuated tip.
............ ..8 Stigmas 2, linear or elongate; leaves 2-4 cm long, truncate or weakly hastate at base; corolla white or pink
............ ....9 Stigmas elongate but not linear; [tribe Jacquemontiae]
............ ....9 Stigmas filiform; [tribe Convolvuleae]
............ ..8 Stigma 1, capitate (or sometimes 2-lobed); leaves 3-15 cm long, mostly strongly hastate or cordate at base; corolla white, pink, lavender, blue, yellow, orange, or red.
............ ......10 Anthers straight after dehiscence; fruits valvate-dehiscent; [tribe Ipomoeeae]
............ ......10 Anthers coiled after dehiscence (making 1-4 complete 360 degree turns); fruits longitudinally or irregularly dehiscent; [tribe Merremieae].
............ ........11 Fruit a four-valved capsule; [s. GA and FL to TX in our region]
............ ........11 Fruit an operculate capsule (with a leathery exocarp that falls off like a lid and a brittle endocarp that shatters irregularly); [s. TX only in our region]

Key K: holoparasites and holomycotrophs

1 Stems thin, flexible, twining, yellow to bright orange; plants parasitic on the stems of other vascular plants via above-ground haustoria.
..2 Inflorescence a cymose cluster; flowers 4-5-merous (sepals 4-5, petals 4-5, stamens 4-5, carpels 2 and fused); fruit a 1-4-seeded dry capsule; fresh plants not aromatic; [Eudicots]; [widespread]
..2 Inflorescence a spike; flowers 3-merous (sepals 6, petals 0, stamens 9, carpel 1); fruit a 1-seeded fleshy drupe; fresh plants aromatic; [Basal Angiosperms]; [peninsular FL only]
1 Stems erect, stiff, straight, variously colored (tan, red, violet, brown, white, pink); plants mycotrophic (or indirectly parasitic via a fungal intermediary), attached to fungi underground.
....3 Flowers radially symmetrical.
......4 Scale leaves alternate (spiral); [collectively widespread]
......4 Scale leaves opposite; [s. FL only]
....3 Flowers bilaterally symmetrical.
........5 Petals 3, separate; stamen 1; capsule 1-locular, pendent when mature, opening by 3 slits; [Monocots]
........5 Petals fused into a tube, with 4-5 lobes; stamens 4; capsule 2-locular, ascending or spreading when mature, opening by 2 valves; [Eudicots]

Key L: epiphytic angiosperms {Note that epiphytic Pteridophytes are not re-keyed here; seek them in Keys A4 and A6}

1 Stems yellow to bright orange, lacking leaves
1 Stems green or brown, with leaves (scale-like or larger).
..2 Leaves opposite, orbicular or oblanceolate, rounded at the apex; [Eudicots]
..2 Leaves alternate, either orbicular or oblanceolate (rounded at the apex), or scale-like, or elongate and tapering, or lanceolate-elliptic.
....3 Leaves orbicular, rounded at the apex; [Basal Angiosperms]
....3 Leaves either scale-like, or elongate and tapering, or lanceolate-elliptic; [Monocots].
......4 Leaves either scale-like or elongate and tapering; flowers radially symmetrical
......4 Leaves lanceolate-elliptic; flowers bilaterally symmetrical