Flora of the Southeastern United States
2022 Edition

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Key to Papaveraceae

1 Flowering stem scapose, leaves basal only; petals 8-16, white; [subfamily Chelidonioideae]
1 Flowering stem with leaves at least low on the stem; petals 0-6, purple, red, orange-red, orange, yellow, cream.
..2 Inflorescence a panicle; petals absent; [subfamily Chelidonioideae]
..2 Inflorescence not a panicle; petals present, 4-6.
....3 Leaves and fruits prickly; [subfamily Papaveroideae]
....3 Leaves and fruits not prickly.
......4 Sepals connate; leaves ternately dissected into linear segments; sap watery; [subfamily Eschscholzioideae]
......4 Sepals separate; leaves pinnately lobed; sap yellow, orange, or milky.
........5 Flowers several in a terminal umbel; [subfamily Chelidonioideae].
..........6 Stigma lobes, placentae, and capsule valves 2; style very short; fruit linear, glabrous
..........6 Stigma lobes, placentae, and capsule valves (2-) 3-4; style ca. 1 cm long; fruit ellipsoid, pubescent with long white hairs
........5 Flowers solitary, terminal.
............ 7 Fruit 15-30 cm long, 2-locular (the partitions complete), dehiscent by elongate valves; stigmatic lobes 2; [subfamily Chelidonioideae]
............ 7 Fruit 1-8 cm long, 4-20-locular (the partitions incomplete), dehiscent by small valves beneath the stigmatic disc; stigmatic lobes 4-20; [subfamily Papaveroideae]
............ ..8 Ovaries and capsules glabrous
............ ..8 Ovaries and capsules sparsely to densely setose-pubescent