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Key to Sambucus

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1 Inflorescence paniculate, normally longer than broad; fruits red when ripe; pith of stems and second-year branches brown; leaves with 5-7 leaflets, these never further divided; [primarily of the Mountains, extending into the Piedmont in VA]
1 Inflorescence cymose, normally broader than long; fruits black or deep purple when ripe; pith of stems and second-year branches white; leaves with 5-11 leaflets, the lower leaflets sometimes further divided; [collectively widespread].
  2 Leaflets (5-) 7-9 (-13 or more); pyrenes smooth or faintly rugose; fruits purplish black, 3-6 mm in diameter; stipels often prominent, linear, to 10 mm long; [common, widespread, and native]
  2 Leaflets 5 (-7); pyrenes strongly rugose; fruits black, 6-8 mm in diameter; stipels usually absent; [rare and exotic]
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