Flora of the Southeastern United States
2022 Edition

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Keyed in multiple places:

Key B3: gymnosperm trees and shrubs with scale or needle leaves

1 Leaves opposite or in whorls of 3.
..2 Longest internodes 2-10 cm long; stems green, Equisetum-like
..2 Longest internodes < 1 cm long; stems green, brown, or tan, not resembling Equisetum.
....3 Leaves scale-like or acicular and <16 mm long; mature cones either dry and cone-like, or fleshy and < 9 mm in diameter
....3 Leaves linear, 15-45 mm long; mature female “cones” fleshy and berry-like, > 15 mm in diameter
......4 Leaves with distinct midrib on the upper surface; 2 stomatal bands on the lower surface each ca. 1 mm wide; berry-like “cone” stalked
......4 Leaves without distinct midrib; 2 stomatal bands on the lower surface each ca. 0.5 mm wide; berrylike “cone” sessile
1 Leaves either alternate, or in fascicles of 2-5 (basally bound by a scarious sheath), or on short shoots in clusters of many 10-60 leaves in apparent whorls.
........5 Leaves either borne in fascicles of 2-5 (basally bound by a scarious sheath) (Pinus) or on short shoots in clusters of many leaves in apparent whorls (Cedrus, Larix)
........5 Leaves alternate.
..........6 Leaves 4-angled in cross-section.
............ 7 Twigs green
............ 7 Twigs brown or tan
..........6 Leaves distinctly flattened (2-sided) in cross-section.
............ ..8 Leaves very soft in texture, seasonally deciduous as twiglets; [primarily Coastal Plain]
............ ..8 Leaves stiffer in texture, evergreen; [collectively more widespread].
............ ....9 Leaves tapering from base to a long-acuminate tip
............ ....9 Leaves with parallel margins for most of their length, or widest near middle and gradually tapering to base and apex, the apex acute, obtuse, or retuse.
............ ......10 Cone dry, brown, and woody at maturity
............ ......10 ”Cone” fleshy, red or purplish at maturity
............ ........11 Seed surrounded by a fleshy scale, appearing drupe-like, this also subtended by a swollen and fleshy receptacle
............ ........11 Seed partially or fully enclosed in a fleshy aril, the subtending receptacle neither swollen nor fleshy
............ ..........12 Leaves opposite or in whorls of 3; fleshy "cone" 2.5-3 cm long, ca. 2 cm in diameter, dark green to purple when ripe, seed entirely surrounded by fleshy tissue.
............ ..........12 Leaves alternate; fleshy "cone" ca. 5 mm long, ca. 5 mm in diameter, red when ripe, the seed exposed at the top by a gap in the aril

Key to Cephalotaxaceae

1 Leaves with distinct midrib on the upper surface; 2 stomatal bands on the lower surface each ca. 1 mm wide; berry-like “cone” stalked; leaves flexible, the tips pointed but not piercing to the touch
1 Leaves without distinct midrib; 2 stomatal bands on the lower surface each ca. 0.5 mm wide; berrylike “cone” sessile; leaves stiff, the tips piercing to the touch