Flora of the Southeastern United States
2022 Edition

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Keyed in multiple places:

Key to Rosaceae, Key B: Herbs and subshrubs with compound leaves

1 Leaves 2- to 3-ternately compound; [tribe Spiraeeae]
1 Leaves 1-compound, either simply pinnately compound or simply palmately compound,
..2 Principal (basalmost) leaves pinnately compound, with (5-) 7-many leaflets (stem leaves sometimes 3-foliolate, especially in Geum).
....3 Principal leaves with leaflets of markedly disparate shape and size (large leaflets alternating with much smaller leaflets, or a large terminal leaflet and much smaller lateral leaflets).
......4 Lateral leaflets alternating between small and large, the terminal leaflet similar in size and shape to the larger lateral leaflets; terminal leaflet < 3 cm wide; hypanthium either conical or turbinate, armed with hooked bristles, the pistils 2, or hemispheric, the pistils >5.
........5 Leaves glabrous or sparsely pubescent beneath; flowers many in racemes; hypanthium conical or turbinate, armed with hooked bristles, the pistils 2; [tribe Sanguisorbeae]
........5 Leaves silvery sericeous beneath; flowers solitary and axillary; hypanthium hemispheric, the pistils >5; [tribe Potentilleae]
......4 Leaflets variable in size and shape, usually the terminal leaflet much larger than any of the lateral leaflets; terminal leaflet 3-20 cm wide; hypanthium either sauce-r-shaped or hemispheric to conical; pistils 5 or more.
..........6 Pistils 5-15, in a circle on a saucer-shaped hypanthium, ripening into upright fruits that resemble follicles but are indehiscent; corolla white or pink; plant 10-20 dm tall; [tribe Ulmarieae]
..........6 Pistils many, densely covering the hemispheric to conical hypanthium, ripening into achenes terminated by the persistent style; corolla white, cream, pale yellow, bright yellow, lavender, maroon, or purple; plant 2-10 dm tall; [tribe Colurieae]
....3 Principal leaves with leaflets of generally similar shape and size (the lowest leaflets may be smaller but of similar shape and toothing to the other leaflets).
............ 7 Foliage and stems viscid-pubescent with brownish hairs; inflorescence a cyme; petals 5, cream-colored; [tribe Potentilleae]
............ 7 Foliage not viscid-pubescent (if hairy, the hairs not brown or viscid); inflorescence of very many (>100) small flowers in a spike, the rachis hidden by the tightly packed flowers; petals 0; [tribe Sanguisorbeae].
............ ..8 Leaflets pinnatifid (each leaflet incised nearly to the midvein); stamens 2 or 4 per flower
............ ..8 Leaflets toothed (the incisions not nearly to the midvein); stamens either 4 or 15-20 per flower (in well-developed, staminate flowers).
............ ....9 Leaflets 0.8-2 cm long; spike 1-2 cm long, 1-2× as long as broad, globose; stamens 15-20 per flower (in well-developed staminate flowers), the filaments 3-4 mm long; sepals green to pinkish-purple; [cultivated, occasionally escaped]
............ ....9 Leaflets 3-10 cm long; spike 6-30 cm long, elongate; stamens 4 per flower, the filaments 8-10 mm long; sepals white (sometimes fading greenish); [native]
..2 Principal (basal-most) leaves palmately compound, with 3-7 (-9) leaflets.
............ ......10 Principal leaves subsessile, 3-foliolate; fruit of follicles; leaves cauline; [tribe Gillenieae]
............ ......10 Principal leaves distinctly petiolate, the petiole often longer than the leaflets, 3-7 (-9)-foliolate; fruit of achenes; leaves basal and cauline.
............ ........11 Principal leaves 5-7 (-9)-foliolate; [tribe Potentilleae]
............ ........11 Principal leaves 3-foliolate.
............ ..........12 Plants in flower.
............ ............ 13 Petals yellow.
............ ............ ..14 Pistils 2-6; [tribe Colurieae]
............ ............ ..14 Pistils (10-) numerous; [tribe Potentilleae]
............ ............ 13 Petals white (or slightly pinkish).
............ ............ ....15 Calyx lobes not subtended by bractlets; [tribe Rubeae]
............ ............ ....15 Calyx lobes subtended by 5 sepaloid bractlets; [tribe Potentilleae].
............ ............ ......16 Leaves evenly serrate with many serrations; [widespread]
............ ............ ......16 Leaves with 3 (-5) teeth at the apex, otherwise entire
............ ..........12 Plants in fruit (or sterile).
............ ............ ........17 Leaflets entire, except for 3 (-5) teeth at the apex; [tribe Potentilleae]
............ ............ ........17 Leaflets evenly serrate or crenate, each well-developed leaflet with > 7 teeth.
............ ............ ..........18 Calyx lobes not subtended by bractlets.
............ ............ ............ 19 Fruit an aggregate of dry, non-adherent achenes; leaflets obtuse at apex; [tribe Colurieae]
............ ............ ............ 19 Fruit an aggregate of fleshy, adherent drupelets; leaflets acuminate at apex; [tribe Rubeae]
............ ............ ..........18 Calyx lobes subtended by 5 sepaloid bractlets; [tribe Potentilleae].
............ ............ ............ ..20 Fruit an aggregate of dry achenes
............ ............ ............ ..20 Fruit an accessory fruit of achenes borne on the surface of a fleshy, red receptacle.
............ ............ ............ ....21 Fresh fruit reddish inside; leaflets serrate, 2.5-12 cm long; sepaloid bracts narrowing to apex, untoothed
............ ............ ............ ....21 Fresh fruit whitish inside; leaflets crenate, 2-4 cm long; sepaloid bracts widest at apex, 3-5-toothed

Key to Geum

1 Style deciduous; leaves 3-foliolate or 3-lobed, lacking small leaflets toward the base; [subgenus or genus Waldsteinia]
1 Style persistent; leaves various (see below).
..2 Style straight or slightly sinuous, neither jointed nor tightly twisted, the tip straight; basal leaves with a cordate or reniform terminal lobe 7-15 cm wide and 1-several lateral lobes generally < 1 cm long (rarely to 2 cm long); cauline leaves much reduced, flabellate, with clasping base and rounded apex; leaves thick, subcoriaceous, the upper surface dark green and glossy; petals 13-20 mm long, bright yellow; [of crevices and ledges on high elevation cliffs (less commonly grassy balds)]; [subgenus Micracomastylis; or genus Parageum]
..2 Style with a tight kink or twist, the straight portion above the kink more-or-less deciduous, leaving a hook; basal leaves variable, trifoliate, pinnatifid, simple or with a large terminal lobe (to 8 cm wide) and much smaller lateral lobes; cauline leaves trifoliate to simple, mostly sessile or petiolate base, with acute or acuminate apex; leaves herbaceous, the upper surface medium green, not notably glossy; petals 1-10 mm long, white, cream, pale yellow, bright yellow, lavender, maroon, or purple; [of mesic to boggy forests, or less commonly, grassy balds (G. geniculatum)].
....3 Calyx lobes 2-4 mm long, lacking bractlets between the lobes; head of achenes elevated above the calyx on a 1-2 mm stipe; flowering Apr-May; fruiting May-Jun; [subgenus or genus Stylipus]
....3 Calyx lobes 3-15 mm long, with bractlets between the lobes; head of achenes more-or-less sessile; flowering May-Aug; fruiting late May-Sep; [subgenus or genus Geum].
......4 Portion of the style above the kink 3-7 mm long; calyx campanulate, cup-like in flower and fruit (sometimes becoming slightly and irregularly reflexed late in fruit), the calyx lobes 5-10 mm long, green to purple; petals cream to yellow or often with a substantial suffusion of rose, lavender, or purple; lower portion of style with long, gland-tipped hairs.
........5 Portion of the style above the kink 4-7 mm long; calyx lobes 5-10 mm long, green or purple-darkened; [of nw. NC and adjacent TN]
........5 Portion of the style above the kink 3-4 mm long; calyx lobes 9-15 mm long, purple; [of ne. WV northward]
......4 Portion of the style above the kink 1-2 mm long; calyx reflexed soon after anthesis, the calyx lobes 3-9 mm long, green; petals white, cream, or yellow; lower portion of style glabrous or with long, eglandular hairs.
..........6 Larger stipules > 10 mm wide, coarsely toothed or even lobed; mid-cauline leaves very coarsely toothed, with 1-5 teeth per cm of margin
..........6 Larger stipules 2-10 (-12) mm wide, entire to toothed; mid-cauline leaves less coarsely toothed, with 3-7 teeth per cm of margin.
............ 7 Plant in flower.
............ ..8 Petals bright yellow, 5-9 mm long
............ ..8 Petals white or cream (often drying pale yellow), 2-7 (-7.5) mm long.
............ ....9 Petals (3-) 4-7 (-7.5) mm long; pedicels puberulent (sometimes also slightly hirsute); [of moist to dry forests]
............ ....9 Petals (2-) 2.5-4 (-5.5) mm long; pedicels densely hirsute with spreading or slightly reflexed hairs, and also puberulent; [of wetlands]
............ 7 Plant in fruit.
............ ......10 Pedicel predominantly puberulent, also sometimes with scattered longer hairs; cauline leaves mostly 3-foliolate or simple; receptacle densely hispid with yellowish, stiff hairs (best seen by removing a several achenes to expose the receptacle surface); [widespread and common in our area, primarily occurring in moist to wet forests]
............ ......10 Pedicel moderately to densely hirsute with spreading to reflexed hairs 1-2.5 mm long, and also puberulent; cauline leaves mostly pinnately compound, the leaflets mostly elongate and often also laciniately divided; receptacle glabrous or sparsely to densely hispid; [rare in our area, primarily northern and/or montane, primarily in bogs and boggy meadows].
............ ........11 Hairs on the achene extending upward onto the lower portion of the style; pedicel sparsely hirsute with spreading hairs; receptacle densely hispid
............ ........11 Hairs on the achene absent or at least not extending upward onto the lower portion of the style; pedicel densely hirsute with spreading to reflexed hairs; receptacle glabrous to sparsely hispid