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Key to Crataegus, Key A: hawthorns with leaf blades widest below midpoint;
blade bases subcordate, truncate, rounded, or abruptly contracted

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1 Primary lateral veins of lobed leaves run to sinuses between lobes as well as to points of lobes, in some or most leaves [see also Crataegus viridis].
..2 Leaves usually pubescent or villous abaxially or on petiole, especially when young; inflorescence hairy (villous, pubescent or tomentose).
....3 Styles usually 2; fruit < 9 mm broad, usually oval or elliptic in shape; [widespread species]
....3 Styles 3 to 5; fruit > 9 mm broad, subglobose; [rare Arkansas endemic nothospecies]
......4 Short-shoot leaf blades 2-3 cm long, often broad as long
......4 Short-shoot leaf blades 3-4 cm long, longer than broad
..2 Leaves and inflorescence glabrous [commonly cultivated species]
........5 Leaf lobes with few serrations; pyrene 1 per fruit; thorns usually 1-2 cm long; [exotic]
........5 Leaf lobes with numerous serrations; pyrenes 5 per fruit; thorns usually 3-5 cm long; [native]
1 Primary lateral veins of lobed leaves run only to lobe points, excepting on vigorous sprouts.
..........6 Sepals foliaceous, equal or exceeding petal length in flower and persistent on fruit
..........6 Sepals not foliaceous, much shorter than petals.
............ 7 Leaves abaxially with whitish hair tufts in proximal main vein axils, especially in spring; [Virides series and hybrids].
............ ..8 Leaves mostly ovate-lanceolate to elliptic, bases cuneate.
............ ....9 Leaves and inflorescences pubescent
............ ....9 Leaves glabrous, except for hair tufts.
............ ......10 Leaves predominately elliptic or rhomboid
............ ..8 Leaves often ovate to rhomboid or suborbicular, bases cuneate or rounded.
............ ........11 Leaves glabrous except for hair tufts; most leaves ovate, unlobed, rounded at base
............ ........11 Leaves pubescent, particularly when young; leaves ovate or rhomboid, often lobed, bases cuneate; [interserial hybrids].
............ ..........12 Leaves most pubescent adaxially, teeth and lobes sharp; sepals glandular-serrate
............ ..........12 Leaves most pubescent abaxially; teeth and lobes subacute; sepals subentire.
............ ............ 13 Inflorescence glabrous or glabrate; anthers pink or reddish.
............ ............ ..14 Young leaves densely pubescent; leaves moderately lobed 10-25% to midrib
............ ............ ..14 Young leaves slightly pubescent; leaves shallowly lobed 10% to midrib
............ ............ 13 Inflorescence pubescent or villous; anthers white or yellowish.
............ ............ ....15 Terminal shoot leaves ovate or rhomboid, lobed 20-50% to midrib
............ ............ ....15 Terminal shoot leaves often suborbicular, lobed 20% or less to midrib.
............ ............ ......16 Terminal shoot leaves slightly lobed; inflorescence villous
............ ............ ......16 Terminal shoot leaves often unlobed; inflorescence pubescent
............ 7 Leaves lacking hair tufts; hairs, if present, dispersed over veins or surface of leaves.
............ ............ ........17 Leaves abaxially pubescent, veins tomentose; petiole stout, pubescent, eglandular; inflorescence tomentose; [Molles series]
............ ............ ..........18 Anthers pink or reddish.
............ ............ ............ 19 Anthers <1.5 mm long; fruit flesh dense; [rare Missouri endemic]
............ ............ ............ 19 Anthers 1.5-3 mm long; fruit usually soft-fleshed when mature; [widespread in southern Midwest]
............ ............ ..........18 Anthers white or yellowish.
............ ............ ............ ..20 Leaves barely lobed (5-10 % to midrib), base rounded or broadly cuneate
............ ............ ............ ..20 Leaves moderately lobed (10-25 % to midrib), base truncate or subcordate on terminal shoots.
............ ............ ............ ....21 Fruit usually red; leaves plane; [widespread species]
............ ............ ............ ....21 Fruit usually yellow; leaves cupped; [east Texas endemic]
............ ............ ........17 Leaves variously pubescent or glabrous; petiole typically glandular, particularly in spring; inflorescence pubescent or glabrous.
............ ............ ............ ......22 Leaf blades on terminal shoots commonly 8-12 cm long.
............ ............ ............ ........23 Inflorescence densely pubescent.
............ ............ ............ ..........24 Leaf base usually truncate; anthers pinkish; habit arborescent
............ ............ ............ ..........24 Leaf base often broadly cuneate; anthers white or ivory; habit usually shrubby
............ ............ ............ ........23 Inflorescence slightly pubescent or glabrous.
............ ............ ............ ............ 25 Leaf blades often wide as long; stamens usually 20; petiolar glands stalked; sepals pectinate
............ ............ ............ ............ 25 Leaf blades longer than broad; stamens 5-10; petiolar glands sessile, small or sparse; sepals glandular-serrate.
............ ............ ............ ............ ..26 Sepals evenly glandular-serrate; fruit subglobose
............ ............ ............ ............ ..26 Sepals irregularly glandular-serrate; fruit oblong
............ ............ ............ ......22 Leaf blades on terminal shoots usually < 8 cm long.
............ ............ ............ ............ ....27 Petiole distinctly villous or pubescent, particularly early in growing season.
............ ............ ............ ............ ......28 Pyrenes usually 2 or 3, concave or pitted on inner sides; [interserial hybrids].
............ ............ ............ ............ ........29 Leaves scabrate adaxially when young; stamens 7-10; [northern taxa rare in SE]
............ ............ ............ ............ ........29 Leaves pubescent to villous; stamens 10 or 20; [Crataegus calpodendron hybrid endemics of MO and AR]
............ ............ ............ ............ ......28 Pyrenes usually 4 or 5, plane on inner sides.
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ 31 Terminal shoot leaves ovate or tending toward oval or suborbicular, unlobed or very shallowly lobed.
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ..32 Petiole eglandular or remotely glandular, unwinged for most of its length; [Molles interserial hybrids]
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ....33 Leaves mostly ovate, shallowly lobed 10-20% to midrib; fruit 8-10 mm
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ....33 Leaves mostly oval or suborbicular, unlobed or lobed to 10% to midrib; fruit 10-18 mm
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ..32 Petiole with several conspicuous stalked glands, winged near half its length.
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ......34 Terminal shoot leaves suborbicular, mostly unlobed; inflorescence >10-flowered
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ......34 Terminal shoot leaves very shallowly lobed; inflorescence 3- to 8-flowered
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ 31 Terminal shoot leaves broadly ovate or deltate, often lobed 20% or more to midrib.
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ........35 Sepals partly glandular-serrate or subentire; leaves often deltate.
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ..........36 Leaves often broad as long, densely villous adaxially in spring; [AR endemic]
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ..........36 Leaves longer than broad, sparsely villous adaxially in spring; [widespread taxa].
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ........35 Sepals deeply gland-toothed or pectinate; most leaves ovate.
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ....39 Leaves mostly 2-3 cm long; anthers reddish; calyx near sessile on fruit
............ ............ ............ ............ ....27 Petiole glabrous, or at most only sparsely hairy in spring
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ........41 Terminal shoot leaves commonly deltate; petiole length often 50-75% as long as blade
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ..........42 Leaves adaxially minutely strigose when young, abaxially glabrous
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ..44 Flesh of mature fruit dense or hard; [northern taxa rare in Southeast].
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ....45 Terminal shoot leaves incised 25-50% to midrib, distal 2 or 3 lobe tips alligned
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ....45 Terminal shoot leaves incised 10-30% to midrib, distal lobe tips convex in outline
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ..44 Flesh of mature fruit soft, succulent; [taxa widely distributed in Southeast]
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ..........42 Leaves adaxially glabrous or remotely pubescent or strigose on veins of both surfaces
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ........41 Terminal shoot leaves mostly ovate or near rhombic; petiole length mostly 30-50 % as long as blade.
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ....57 Petiole remotely glandular in spring; sepals remotely glandular-serrate or subentire; [Pruinosae series]
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ......58 Leaves sharply or coarsely toothed and lobed; petiole usually < 2/3 as long as blade
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ....57 Petiole distinctly and persistently glandular; sepals distinctly glandular-serrate.

Key to Crataegus, Key C: hawthorns with leaf blades widest at midpoint or beyond midpoint; blade bases acute or cuneate;
leaves eglandular, or if glandular then twigs and branchlets not geniculate

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1 Leaves abaxially canescent, margins mostly entire; fruit calyx open, exposing pyrenes
1 Leaves abaxially pubescent, villous or glabrous, margins toothed; fruit calyx not fully open.
..2 Leaves spatulate or oblanceolate, < 13 mm wide; fruit < 6 mm diameter; pyrenes about 3 mm long
..2 Leaves variously shaped but most > 13 mm wide; fruit > 6 mm; pyrenes 4 mm long or more.
....3 Leaves abaxially with dense hair tufts in proximal main vein axils, especially in spring; [plants typically of wet or floodplain habitats].
......4 Inflorescence simple, 1-5-flowered; fruit 10-15 mm diameter, lustrous red, mature in late spring.
........5 Leaf blades mostly 5-7 cm long, elliptic, margin wavy or with uneven, blunt teeth
........5 Leaf blades usually < 5 cm long, most obovate, margin finely toothed.
..........6 Leaf adaxial surface usually glossy; whitish hair tufts in main vein axils abaxially
..........6 Leaf adaxial surface matte; reddish hair tufts in main vein axils abaxially
......4 Inflorescence compound, 5-20-flowered; fruit 5-15 mm diameter, dull red or orange-red, mature in autumn.
............ 7 Petiole 5-10 mm long; terminal shoot leaves < 25 mm broad
............ 7 Petiole > 10 mm long; terminal shoot leaves > 25 mm broad; [Virides series and hybrids].
............ ..8 Leaves glabrous, except for hair tufts.
............ ....9 Leaves mostly ovate; terminal shoot leaves suborbicular, unlobed or barely lobed; bases rounded
............ ....9 Leaves predominately lanceolate, elliptical, rhomboid or obovate; terminal shoot leaves often ovate; bases usually cuneate.
............ ......10 Leaves rarely lanceolate, mostly elliptical or rhomboid.
............ ........11 Leaf serrations small or crenate; terminal shoot leaves often incised on each side nearly to midrib
............ ........11 Leaf serrations acute; terminal shoot leaves moderately lobed
............ ..8 Leaves and/or inflorescences hairy, at least in spring.
............ ..........12 Terminal shoot leaves mostly ovate or rhomboid
............ ............ 13 Inflorescence densely pubescent; bracteoles thin, linear, caducous; leaves finely toothed
............ ............ 13 Inflorescence villous; bracteoles firm, persist through anthesis; leaves coarsely toothed
............ ..........12 Terminal shoot leaves orbicular, elliptical or obovate
............ ............ ..14 Terminal shoot leaves orbicular, unlobed; young leaves white-tomentose; inflorescence glabrate
............ ............ ..14 Terminal leaves elliptical or obovate, prominently toothed; young leaves and inflorescence pubescent
....3 Leaves glabrous or with hairs scattered, not in tufts; [plants typically of upland habitats].
............ ............ ....15 Pyrenes channeled or pitted on inner sides.
............ ............ ......16 Leaves persistently pubescent, at least on petiole or main veins abaxially.
............ ............ ........17 Sepals glandular-serrate or subentire; inflorescence > 12-flowered
............ ............ ........17 Sepals often deeply glandular-serrate or glandular-pectinate; inflorescence < 10-flowered
............ ............ ..........18 Leaves dentate-serrate, usually unlobed
............ ............ ......16 Leaves glabrous or glabrate abaxially after maturity
............ ............ ............ 19 Leaves scabrate adaxially when young; stamens 7-10
............ ............ ............ 19 Leaves not scabrate; stamens 5-20.
............ ............ ............ ..20 Pyrenes with a shallow groove or depression; leaf venation vaguely reticulate, barely impressed adaxially
............ ............ ............ ..20 Pyrenes deeply grooved or pitted; leaf venation distinctly reticulate and impressed adaxially.
............ ............ ............ ....21 Stamens 15-20 per flower; anthers < 1 mm long.
............ ............ ............ ......22 Leaf blades often narrowly obovate or broadly elliptic; fruit 6-8 mm in diameter
............ ............ ............ ......22 Leaf blades broadly obovate, rhombic or suborbicular; fruit 7-12 mm in diameter
............ ............ ....15 Pyrenes plane on inner sides.
............ ............ ............ ........23 Sepals foliaceous, equaling or exceeding petal length in flower and persistent on fruit; flowers usually 1-5 per inflorescence.
............ ............ ............ ..........24 Terminal shoot leaves broadly elliptic or ovate, often shallowly lobed
............ ............ ............ ..........24 Terminal shoot leaves mostly elliptic or obovate, unlobed
............ ............ ............ ........23 Sepals not foliaceous, shorter than petals; flowers 5 or more per inflorescence
............ ............ ............ ............ 25 Thorns short (< 2 cm), or spinose spur shoots present; main lateral leaf veins run to sinuses and lobe tips in lobed leaves.
............ ............ ............ ............ ..26 Fruit black or blue; styles and pyrenes 3-5; most leaves elliptical; [native]
............ ............ ............ ............ ..26 Fruit red; styles and pyrenes 2; most leaves rhombic or obovate; [exotic]
............ ............ ............ ............ 25 Thorns usually > 2 cm long; main lateral leaf veins lead only to lobe tips in lobed leaves.
............ ............ ............ ............ ....27 Petioles distinctly glandular, usually with 3 or more glands persistent.
............ ............ ............ ............ ........29 Fruit flesh usually hard or dense; calyx collar elevated on fruit; leaves moderately lobed on terminal shoots.
............ ............ ............ ............ ........29 Fruit flesh dense or soft; calyx collar sessile or nearly so on fruit; leaves shallowly lobed or unlobed on terminal shoots.
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ..32 Terminal shoot leaves suborbicular and 6-8 cm wide; [rare AL endemic]
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ..32 Terminal shoot leaves ovate or obovate, < 6 cm wide; [uncommon but widespread]
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ....33 Leaf blades broadly elliptic or oval, most 4-6 cm long.
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ......34 Leaves usually shallowly but sharply lobed; anthers purplish; [AL, GA, SC]
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ......34 Leaves bluntly lobed or unlobed; anthers whitish or pink; [OK, AR, OK]
............ ............ ............ ............ ......28 Stamens usually 20 per flower (often 30 or more in C. triflora).
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ........35 Leaves pubescent, at least abaxially; anthers white or yellowish.
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ..........36 Sepals remotely glandular-serrate; petiolar glands sessile; fruit usually 8-12 mm diameter
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ..........36 Sepals deeply glandular-serrate; petiolar glands stalked; fruit usually > 12 mm diameter.
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ 37 Leaves thin; inflorescence simple, 3-5-flowered; stamens usually 30 or more
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ 37 Leaves firm; inflorescence compound, > 5-flowered; stamens 20.
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ..38 Terminal shoot leaves 4-5 cm wide, unlobed; sepals usually erect on fruit
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ..38 Terminal shoot leaves 5-8 cm wide, with lobelike points; sepals patent in fruit
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ........35 Leaves glabrous; anthers pink to purplish, rarely white.
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ....39 Calyx collar sessile on fruit; fruit flesh soft and succulent at maturity.
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ......40 Leaves mostly unlobed; inflorescence scabrous-pubescent; petiolar glands stalked
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ......40 Leaves acutely lobed; inflorescence glabrate; petiolar glands sessile
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ....39 Calyx collar often elevated on fruit; fruit flesh usually dense or dry; [Pulcherrimae series].
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ........41 Terminal shoot leaves shallowly lobed or unlobed, apex obtuse, margins crenate-serrate
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ........41 Terminal shoot leaves shallowly to moderately lobed, apex usually acute, margins serrate.
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ..........42 Leaf margins usually convex or bowed from midpoint to apex.
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ 43 Petioles of smaller leaves winged 1/2 length; leaf lobes straight on inner/distal side.
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ..44 Leaf blades mostly 4-6 cm long, serrations obtuse; fruit ellipsoid or oval, pale yellow
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ..44 Leaf blades often 5-8 cm long, serrations acute; fruit subglobose, red or yellowish
............ ............ ............ ............ ....27 Petioles eglandular, or occasionally with 1 or 2 glands deciduous or obscure after spring. xx
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ......46 Stamens 10 per flower; leaf blades with 4-6 pairs of main lateral veins; calyx sessile on mature fruit
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ......46 Stamens 20 per flower; leaf blades with 3-4 pairs of main lateral veins; calyx collar often elevated on fruit.
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ......52 Stamens usually 20; styles 5; inflorescence branches canescent or tomentose.
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ..56 Styles and pyrenes usually 2 or 3; primary leaf veins rather obscure or not impressed; petiole winged to base.
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ..56 Styles and pyrenes 3-5; primary leaf veins impressed adaxially, conspicuous abaxially; petiole winged near blade.
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ 61 Primary leaf veins not impressed adaxially, somewhat obscure abaxially; petiole <10 mm long, winged to near base.
............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ ............ 61 Primary leaf veins impressed adaxially, conspicuous abaxially; petiole 10 mm or more, partly winged near blade.
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