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Keyed in multiple places:

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Key to Chamaecrista

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1 Shrub with gray bark; [s. TX]; [series Greggianae]
1 Herb (annual or perennial, the perennials sometimes suffrutescent), green or reddish; [collectively widespread].
..2 Leaflets 1 pair per leaf, asymmetrically obovate, < 1.7× as long as wide; [series Bauhinianae]
..2 Leaflets 2-25 pairs per leaf, obliquely oblong, 2-7× as long as wide.
....3 Leaflets 2-8 (-11) pairs per leaf, with never more than 11 pairs even on the larger and better-developed leaves; [FL and TX].
......4 Flowers > 1.9 cm in diameter, the long petal 11-15 mm long; [s. FL]; [series Chamaecrista]
......4 Flowers < 1.8 cm in diameter, the long petal 3-7 mm long; [FL or TX]
........5 Leaflets usually 7-9 pairs per leaf; [s. and e. TX]; [series Caliciopsis]
........5 Leaflets 2-6 leaflets per leaf; [FL]; perennial herbs from a blackish taproot, the several stems radiating from the crown; [series Prostratae]
..........6 Functional stamens of the outer whorl 5, the inner whorl of 2-3 reduced or rudimentary stamens; stipule bases cordate and auriculate; hairs of the stem both incurved and setose, the setae (1-) 1.5-4.; 5 (-5) mm long
..........6 Functional stamens 10, the outer whorl larger than the inner whorl, but both whorls of 5 functional stamens; stipule bases slightly oblique; hairs of the stem both incurved and setose, the setae to 1.4 (-1.8) mm long
....3 Leaflets 5-32 pairs per leaf, at least the larger and better-developed leaves with > 11 pairs.
............ 7 Corolla 0.8-1.0 cm in diameter, the larger petals 4-7 (-8) mm long; functional stamens 4-8; fruits (15-) 18-32 (-36) mm long.
............ ..8 Petiole pilose with yellowish hairs 1-2 (-3) mm long; petiolar gland cylindric or clavate; functional stamens 5-8; leaflets 5-6× as long as wide
............ ..8 Petiole incurved-puberulent with hairs 0-0.8 mm long; petiolar gland stalked-cupuliform or stalked-discoid; functional stamens 4-5; leaflets 3-5× as long as wide
............ 7 Corolla 2.0-3.5 cm in diameter, the larger petals 12-20 mm long; functional stamens 10; fruits 25-75 (-85) mm long.
............ ....9 Perennial from a horizontal woody root or crown; stems usually clustered, and variously prostrate, decumbent, ascending, or erect; peduncles axillary, or supra-axillary by adnation 0-10 (-15) mm above the node.
............ ......10 Pedicels 0-10 (-15) mm long; [s. and se. TX].
............ ........11 Peduncles supra-axillary, used to the stem for (-) 1-10 (-15) mm above the node; pedicels 5-10 (-15) mm long; styles 3.5-6 mm long; [series Chamaecrista]
............ ........11 Peduncles strictly axillary; pedicels 0-4 mm long; styles 4-9 mm long; [series Flexuosae]
............ ......10 Pedicels (6-) 8-22 (-26) mm long; [FL, s. AL, sw. GA, se. MS]; [series Chamaecrista].
............ ..........12 Horizontal root to ca. 20+ cm long; anthers dark red to purple-red, sometimes yellow towards the base; flowering year-round, but especially Mar-Aug; [pine rocklands of s. FL]
............ ..........12 Horizontal root to ca. 46+ cm long; anthers yellow to yellow-brown; flowering late May-early Aug; [sandy and clayey pine and oak woodlands of s. AL, sw. GA, se. MS, and the w. FL panhandle]
............ ....9 Annual from a taproot; stems solitary (rarely several), ascending to erect; peduncles adnate to the stem 1-26 mm above the node (appearing to diverge from the stem in the internode); [series Chamaecrista].
............ ............ 13 Pods 6.5-10 mm wide; seeds 4.7-6.3 mm across; [of tidal marshes in e. VA]
............ ............ 13 Pods 3-5 (-6.5) mm wide; seeds (2.8-) 3.2-4.8 mm across; [widespread geographically and ecologically].
............ ............ ..14 Surface of leaflets pubescent; [from w. Panhandle FL and s. AL westward]
............ ............ ..14 Surface of leaflets glabrous; [collectively widespread in our area].
............ ............ ....15 Petiolar gland depressed, 1.5-2.5 mm wide, raised at both ends; pods 6-10 cm long; plant usually glabrous or glabrescent, to 24 dm tall
............ ............ ....15 Petiolar gland not depressed, <1.5 mm wide; pods 4-6 cm long; plant usually pubescent, to 10 dm tall

Key to Fabaceae, Key C: woody legumes with evenly 1-pinnately compound leaves with 2 or more leaflets
[subfamilies Faboideae and Caesalpinioideae]

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1 Flowers with 5 petals, 2 fused to form the keel (papilionaceous); corolla rose, yellow, orange, red, pink, or white; [subfamily Faboideae].
..2 Shrubs; stamens 10, diadelphous (9 and 1).
....3 Leaflet pairs 10-25; [widespread]
....3 Leaflet pairs 4-6.
......4 Leaflets 10-25 mm long; corolla 15-20 mm long, yellow; [non-native cultivated and sparingly established]
......4 Leaflets 3-11 mm long; corolla 8-11 mm long, pink or white; [native, s. TX]
1 Flowers with 5 or 3 petals, all distinct (caesalpinaceous); corolla yellow, orange, red, or pink; [subfamily Detarioideae or Caesalpinioid clade].
........5 Large tree; sepals 4; petals 3; functional stamens 3; [subfamily Detarioideae]
........5 Shrub or small tree (< 5 m tall); sepals 5, petals 5, functional stamens 6-10; [Caesalpinoid clade].
..........6 Trees; filaments of the 3 lower stamens curved; petiolar gland absent; [introduced in s. FL]
..........6 Shrubs or trees; filaments of all stamens straight; petiolar and/or rachis gland(s) present or absent; [collectively more widespread].
............ 7 Leaflets 0.6-1.0 cm long, coriaceous, the venation raised-reticulate below; functional stamens 10; [s. TX]
............ 7 Leaflets 1.5-10.5 cm long, herbaceous; functional stamens 6-7 (10 in S. surattensis); [collectively more widespread, but especially FL and s. TX]
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